a subunit of NF-kappa-B transcription complex (NFkB), which plays a crucial role in biological processes such as inflammation, immunity, differentiation, cell growth, tumorigenesis and apoptosis. NFkB consists of homo- or heterodimeric complexes formed from the five NFkB proteins in mammals: RelA, RelB, c-REL, NFkB1, and NFkB2. They form a variety of homodimers and heterodimers, each binding at kappa-B sites in the DNA, regulating distinct sets of genes. Different dimer combinations act as transcriptional activators or repressors. NFkB1-p105 is processed into the shorter form NFkB1-p50 either cotranslationally or posttranslationally. p50/RelA and p50/RelB heterodimers are transcriptional activators. p50 homodimers are transcriptional repressor, but can act as a transcriptional activators when associated with BCL3. p50 binds to the kappa-B consensus sequence in enhancer region of genes involved in immune response and acute phase reactions. NFKB1-p105 binds Cot, inhibiting Cot-induced MAPK signaling; active Cot is released by proteasome-dependent degradation of p105. 3 alternatively spliced human isoforms have been reported. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Molecular Function: actinin binding; chromatin binding; DNA binding; DNA-binding transcription activator activity, RNA polymerase II-specific; DNA-binding transcription factor activity; DNA-binding transcription repressor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific; double-stranded DNA binding; heat shock protein binding; identical protein binding; protein binding; protein heterodimerization activity; protein homodimerization activity; RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific DNA binding; RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding; sequence-specific DNA binding; transcription regulatory region DNA binding; transcription regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding
Biological Process: apoptotic process; cellular response to angiotensin; cellular response to brain-derived neurotrophic factor stimulus; cellular response to carbohydrate stimulus; cellular response to cytokine stimulus; cellular response to diterpene; cellular response to dsRNA; cellular response to glucoside; cellular response to interleukin-1; cellular response to interleukin-6; cellular response to lipopolysaccharide; cellular response to nicotine; cellular response to organic cyclic compound; cellular response to peptide; cellular response to tumor necrosis factor; lymph node development; negative regulation of apoptotic process; negative regulation of calcidiol 1-monooxygenase activity; negative regulation of cytokine production; negative regulation of gene expression; negative regulation of inflammatory response; negative regulation of interleukin-12 biosynthetic process; negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II; negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated; positive regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway; positive regulation of gene expression; positive regulation of gene silencing by miRNA; positive regulation of hyaluronan biosynthetic process; positive regulation of miRNA metabolic process; positive regulation of pri-miRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II; positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II; positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated; regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II; regulation of transcription, DNA-templated; response to muscle stretch; response to organic cyclic compound; response to oxidative stress; signal transduction