JNK2 Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in various processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, transformation and programmed cell death. Extracellular stimuli such as proinflammatory cytokines or physical stress stimulate the stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAP/JNK) signaling pathway. In this cascade, two dual specificity kinases MAP2K4/MKK4 and MAP2K7/MKK7 phosphorylate and activate MAPK9/JNK2. In turn, MAPK9/JNK2 phosphorylates a number of transcription factors, primarily components of AP-1 such as JUN and ATF2 and thus regulates AP-1 transcriptional activity. In response to oxidative or ribotoxic stresses, inhibits rRNA synthesis by phosphorylating and inactivating the RNA polymerase 1-specific transcription initiation factor RRN3. Promotes stressed cell apoptosis by phosphorylating key regulatory factors including TP53 and YAP1. In T-cells, MAPK8 and MAPK9 are required for polarized differentiation of T-helper cells into Th1 cells. Upon T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, is activated by CARMA1, BCL10, MAP2K7 and MAP3K7/TAK1 to regulate JUN protein levels. Plays an important role in the osmotic stress-induced epithelial tight-junctions disruption. When activated, promotes beta-catenin/CTNNB1 degradation and inhibits the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Participates also in neurite growth in spiral ganglion neurons. Phosphorylates the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer and plays a role in the regulation of the circadian clock. Phosphorylates POU5F1, which results in the inhibition of POU5F1's transcriptional activity and enhances its proteosomal degradation. MAPK9 isoforms display different binding patterns: alpha-1 and alpha-2 preferentially bind to JUN, whereas beta-1 and beta-2 bind to ATF2. However, there is no correlation between binding and phosphorylation, which is achieved at about the same efficiency by all isoforms. JUNB is not a substrate for JNK2 alpha-2, and JUND binds only weakly to it. Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CMGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. MAP kinase subfamily. 5 alternatively spliced human isoforms have been reported. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: CMGC group; EC; JNK subfamily; Kinase, protein; MAPK family; MAPK/JNK subfamily; Protein kinase, CMGC; Protein kinase, Ser/Thr (non-receptor)
Chromosomal Location of mouse Ortholog: 11|11 B1.2-B1.3
Cellular Component:  cytoplasm; cytosol; mitochondrion; neuron projection; nucleus; perikaryon
Molecular Function:  ATP binding; cysteine-type endopeptidase activator activity involved in apoptotic process; JUN kinase activity; kinase activity; MAP kinase activity; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase binding; nucleotide binding; protein binding; protein kinase activity; protein serine/threonine kinase activity; protein serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase activity; transcription factor binding; transferase activity
Biological Process:  cellular response to cadmium ion; cellular response to organic substance; cellular response to reactive oxygen species; cellular response to UV; intracellular signal transduction; JNK cascade; JUN phosphorylation; neuron development; neuron projection development; peptidyl-serine phosphorylation; phosphorylation; positive regulation of apoptotic process; positive regulation of apoptotic signaling pathway; positive regulation of cell morphogenesis involved in differentiation; positive regulation of chemokine production; positive regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process; positive regulation of gene expression; positive regulation of macrophage derived foam cell differentiation; positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process; positive regulation of nitric-oxide synthase biosynthetic process; positive regulation of podosome assembly; positive regulation of prostaglandin biosynthetic process; positive regulation of prostaglandin secretion; positive regulation of protein phosphorylation; positive regulation of protein ubiquitination; positive regulation of transcription factor catabolic process; positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated; protein localization to tricellular tight junction; protein phosphorylation; regulation of circadian rhythm; regulation of gene expression; regulation of JNK cascade; regulation of protein ubiquitination; release of cytochrome c from mitochondria; response to cadmium ion; response to drug; response to mechanical stimulus; rhythmic process
Reference #:  Q9WTU6 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: AI851083; c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2; JNK; JNK/SAPK alpha; Jnk2; Jun kinase; MAP kinase 9; MAPK 9; Mapk9; mitogen activated protein kinase 9; Mitogen-activated protein kinase 9; MK09; OTTMUSP00000005725; OTTMUSP00000005726; p54aSAPK; Prk; Prkm9; protein kinase, mitogen-activated 9; Stress-activated protein kinase JNK2
Gene Symbols: Mapk9
Molecular weight: 48,189 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 5.64  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
CST Pathways:  Apoptosis Regulation  |  B Cell Receptor Signaling  |  Death Receptor Signaling  |  ErbB/HER Signaling  |  Inhibition of Apoptosis  |  Insulin Receptor Signaling  |  Mitochondrial Control of Apoptosis  |  NF-kB Signaling  |  Parkinson's Disease  |  SAPK/JNK Signaling Cascades  |  T Cell Receptor Signaling  |  TGF-ß Signaling  |  Toll-Like Receptor Signaling
Protein-Specific Antibodies, siRNAs or Recombinant Proteins from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
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Cross-references to other databases:  AlphaFold  |  STRING  |  Reactome  |  BioGPS  |  KinBase  |  Pfam  |  ENZYME  |  Phospho.ELM  |  NetworKIN  |  UniProtKB  |  Entrez-Gene  |  Ensembl Gene