Tyrosine-protein kinase that acts as cell-surface receptor for fibroblast growth factors and plays an essential role in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Plays an essential role in the regulation of chondrocyte differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis, and is required for normal skeleton development. Regulates both osteogenesis and postnatal bone mineralization by osteoblasts. Promotes apoptosis in chondrocytes, but can also promote cancer cell proliferation. Required for normal development of the inner ear. Phosphorylates PLCG1, CBL and FRS2. Ligand binding leads to the activation of several signaling cascades. Activation of PLCG1 leads to the production of the cellular signaling molecules diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Phosphorylation of FRS2 triggers recruitment of GRB2, GAB1, PIK3R1 and SOS1, and mediates activation of RAS, MAPK1/ERK2, MAPK3/ERK1 and the MAP kinase signaling pathway, as well as of the AKT1 signaling pathway. Plays a role in the regulation of vitamin D metabolism. Mutations that lead to constitutive kinase activation or impair normal FGFR3 maturation, internalization and degradation lead to aberrant signaling. Over-expressed or constitutively activated FGFR3 promotes activation of PTPN11/SHP2, STAT1, STAT5A and STAT5B. Secreted isoform 3 retains its capacity to bind FGF1 and FGF2 and hence may interfere with FGF signaling. Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Tyr protein kinase family. Fibroblast growth factor receptor subfamily. Expressed in brain, kidney and testis. Very low or no expression in spleen, heart, and muscle. In 20- to 22-week old fetuses it is expressed at high level in kidney, lung, small intestine and brain, and to a lower degree in spleen, liver, and muscle. Isoform 2 is detected in epithelial cells. Isoform 1 is not detected in epithelial cells. Isoform 1 and isoform 2 are detected in fibroblastic cells. 4 alternatively spliced human isoforms have been reported. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: EC 184.108.40.206; FGFR family; Kinase, protein; Membrane protein, integral; Protein kinase, TK; Protein kinase, tyrosine (receptor); TK group
Cellular Component: cell surface; cytoplasm; cytoplasmic side of plasma membrane; cytoplasmic vesicle; endoplasmic reticulum; Golgi apparatus; integral component of membrane; integral component of plasma membrane; lysosome; membrane; nucleus; perinuclear region of cytoplasm; plasma membrane; receptor complex; transport vesicle
Molecular Function: ATP binding; fibroblast growth factor binding; fibroblast growth factor-activated receptor activity; identical protein binding; kinase activity; nucleotide binding; protein binding; protein kinase activity; protein tyrosine kinase activity; transferase activity; transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity
Biological Process: alveolar secondary septum development; apoptotic process; axonogenesis involved in innervation; bone development; bone maturation; bone mineralization; bone morphogenesis; bone trabecula morphogenesis; cartilage development; cell differentiation; cell-cell signaling; central nervous system myelination; cochlea development; digestive tract morphogenesis; epithelial cell fate commitment; ERK1 and ERK2 cascade; fibroblast growth factor receptor apoptotic signaling pathway; fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway; forebrain development; inner ear development; inner ear receptor cell differentiation; lens fiber cell development; lens morphogenesis in camera-type eye; morphogenesis of an epithelium; negative regulation of astrocyte differentiation; negative regulation of cell differentiation; negative regulation of cell proliferation; negative regulation of developmental growth; negative regulation of epithelial cell proliferation; negative regulation of gene expression; negative regulation of mitotic nuclear division; negative regulation of smoothened signaling pathway; negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II; oligodendrocyte development; p38MAPK cascade; peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation; phosphorylation; positive regulation of bone mineralization; positive regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway; positive regulation of cell differentiation; positive regulation of cell proliferation; positive regulation of cell proliferation in bone marrow; positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation; positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade; positive regulation of MAPK cascade; positive regulation of MAPKKK cascade by fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway; positive regulation of neuron apoptotic process; positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation; positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity; positive regulation of phospholipase activity; positive regulation of protein ubiquitination; positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein; post-anal tail morphogenesis; protein autophosphorylation; protein phosphorylation; regulation of bone remodeling; regulation of collagen metabolic process; regulation of ossification; regulation of osteoclast differentiation; response to axon injury; somatic stem cell population maintenance; substantia nigra development; transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase signaling pathway