eIF2-alpha a translation initiation factor that functions in the early steps of protein synthesis by forming a ternary complex with GTP and initiator tRNA. This complex binds to a 40s ribosomal subunit, followed by mRNA binding to form a 43S preinitiation complex. Junction of the 60S ribosomal subunit to form the 80S initiation complex is preceded by hydrolysis of the GTP bound to eIF-2 and release of an eIF-2-GDP binary complex. In order for eIF-2 to recycle and catalyze another round of initiation, the GDP bound to eIF-2 must exchange with GTP by way of a reaction catalyzed by eIF-2B. Phosphorylated by at least 4 kinases: PERK, GCN2, HRI and PKR. Phosphorylation stabilizes the eIF-2/GDP/eIF-2B complex and prevents GDP/GTP exchange reaction, thus impairing the recycling of eIF-2 between successive rounds of initiation and leading to global inhibition of translation. Upregulated in some thyroid cancers and bronchiolo-alveolar adenocarcinomas; aberrant phosphorylation correlates with Alzheimer disease and Epstein-Barr virus infections. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: RNA-binding; Translation; Translation initiation
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 6q24
Cellular Component:  cytoplasm; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 complex; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B complex; nucleus; stress granule; translation initiation ternary complex
Molecular Function:  protein binding; ribosome binding; translation initiation factor activity
Biological Process:  aging; cellular response to amino acid starvation; cellular response to heat; cellular response to oxidative stress; cellular response to UV; negative regulation of guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity; negative regulation of translational initiation in response to stress; positive regulation of neuron death; positive regulation of type B pancreatic cell apoptotic process; protein autophosphorylation; regulation of translational initiation in response to stress; response to manganese-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress; stress granule assembly; translation
Reference #:  P68101 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: eIF-2-alpha; eIF-2A; eIF-2alpha; Eif2a; Eif2s1; Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit 1; Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit alpha; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 1 alpha; MGC93488
Gene Symbols: Eif2s1
Molecular weight: 36,108 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 5.02  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
CST Pathways:  Translation: eIF2  |  Translational Control
Protein-Specific Antibodies or siRNAs from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
Select Structure to View Below


Protein Structure Not Found.

Cross-references to other databases:  STRING  |  Reactome  |  BioGPS  |  Pfam  |  Phospho.ELM  |  NetworKIN  |  UniProtKB  |  Entrez-Gene  |  GenPept  |  Ensembl Gene  |  Ensembl Protein