AR Steroid hormone receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Transcription factor activity is modulated by bound coactivator and corepressor proteins like ZBTB7A that recruits NCOR1 and NCOR2 to the androgen response elements/ARE on target genes, negatively regulating androgen receptor signaling and androgen-induced cell proliferation. Transcription activation is also down-regulated by NR0B2. Activated, but not phosphorylated, by HIPK3 and ZIPK/DAPK3. Isoform 3 and isoform 4 lack the C-terminal ligand-binding domain and may therefore constitutively activate the transcription of a specific set of genes independently of steroid hormones. Belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor family. NR3 subfamily. Isoform 2 is mainly expressed in heart and skeletal muscle (PubMed:15634333). Isoform 3 is expressed by basal and stromal cells of prostate (at protein level) (PubMed:19244107). 4 alternatively spliced human isoforms have been reported. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: DNA-binding; Nuclear receptor; Transcription factor
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: X C3|X 42.82 cM
Cellular Component:  axon; cytoplasm; dendrite; nuclear chromatin; nuclear speck; nucleus; plasma membrane; protein-containing complex
Molecular Function:  androgen binding; androgen receptor binding; ATPase binding; beta-catenin binding; chromatin binding; DNA binding; DNA-binding transcription activator activity, RNA polymerase II-specific; DNA-binding transcription factor activity; enzyme binding; lipid binding; metal ion binding; nuclear receptor activity; POU domain binding; protein binding; protein domain specific binding; ribonucleotide binding; RNA polymerase II basal transcription factor binding; RNA polymerase II proximal promoter sequence-specific DNA binding; RNA polymerase II transcription factor binding; sequence-specific DNA binding; signaling receptor binding; steroid binding; steroid hormone receptor activity; transcription factor binding; transcription regulatory region DNA binding; zinc ion binding
Biological Process:  activation of prostate induction by androgen receptor signaling pathway; androgen receptor signaling pathway; animal organ formation; cellular process; cellular response to steroid hormone stimulus; cellular response to testosterone stimulus; copulation; epithelial cell differentiation involved in prostate gland development; epithelial cell morphogenesis; fertilization; in utero embryonic development; intracellular receptor signaling pathway; lateral sprouting involved in mammary gland duct morphogenesis; Leydig cell differentiation; male courtship behavior; male genitalia morphogenesis; male gonad development; male sex differentiation; male somatic sex determination; mammary gland alveolus development; morphogenesis of an epithelial fold; multicellular organism growth; negative regulation of cell proliferation; negative regulation of epithelial cell proliferation; negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway; negative regulation of integrin biosynthetic process; negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II; negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated; positive regulation of cell differentiation; positive regulation of cell proliferation; positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation involved in prostate gland development; positive regulation of gene expression; positive regulation of insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling pathway; positive regulation of integrin biosynthetic process; positive regulation of intracellular estrogen receptor signaling pathway; positive regulation of MAPK cascade; positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity; positive regulation of penile erection; positive regulation of phosphorylation; positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II; positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase III; positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated; prostate gland epithelium morphogenesis; prostate gland growth; protein complex oligomerization; regulation of developmental growth; regulation of gene expression; regulation of prostatic bud formation; regulation of protein localization to plasma membrane; regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure; regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II; regulation of transcription, DNA-templated; reproductive behavior; reproductive structure development; reproductive system development; seminiferous tubule development; single fertilization; skeletal muscle hypertrophy; spermatogenesis; tertiary branching involved in mammary gland duct morphogenesis; transcription, DNA-templated
Reference #:  P19091 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: ANDR; Androgen receptor; Ar; AW320017; Dihydrotestosterone receptor; Nr3c4; Nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 4; OTTMUSP00000019597; testicular feminization; Tfm
Gene Symbols: Ar
Molecular weight: 98,194 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 6.34  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
Select Structure to View Below


Protein Structure Not Found.

Cross-references to other databases:  STRING  |  Reactome  |  BioGPS  |  Pfam  |  RCSB PDB  |  Phospho3D  |  Phospho.ELM  |  NetworKIN  |  UniProtKB  |  Entrez-Gene  |  Ensembl Gene  |  NURSA