SNCA Neuronal protein that plays several roles in synaptic activity such as regulation of synaptic vesicle trafficking and subsequent neurotransmitter release. Participates as a monomer in synaptic vesicle exocytosis by enhancing vesicle priming, fusion and dilation of exocytotic fusion pores. Mechanistically, acts by increasing local Ca(2+) release from microdomains which is essential for the enhancement of ATP-induced exocytosis. Acts also as a molecular chaperone in its multimeric membrane-bound state, assisting in the folding of synaptic fusion components called SNAREs (Soluble NSF Attachment Protein REceptors) at presynaptic plasma membrane in conjunction with cysteine string protein-alpha/DNAJC5. This chaperone activity is important to sustain normal SNARE-complex assembly during aging. Plays also a role in the regulation of the dopamine neurotransmission by associating with the dopamine transporter (DAT1) and thereby modulating its activity. Belongs to the synuclein family. Highly expressed in presynaptic terminals in the central nervous system. Expressed principally in brain. 3 alternatively spliced human isoforms have been reported. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Adaptor/scaffold
Chromosomal Location of mouse Ortholog: 6 B3|6 29.15 cM
Cellular Component:  actin cytoskeleton; axon; axon terminus; cell cortex; cell projection; cytoplasm; cytoplasmic vesicle membrane; cytoskeleton; cytosol; extracellular region; extracellular space; growth cone; inclusion body; membrane; mitochondrial inner membrane; mitochondrial matrix; mitochondrial outer membrane; mitochondrion; neuronal cell body; nuclear outer membrane; nucleus; perinuclear region of cytoplasm; plasma membrane; platelet alpha granule membrane; presynapse; protein-containing complex; ribosome; supramolecular fiber; synapse; synaptic vesicle; synaptic vesicle membrane; terminal bouton
Molecular Function:  actin binding; alpha-tubulin binding; arachidonic acid binding; beta-tubulin binding; calcium ion binding; copper ion binding; cuprous ion binding; cysteine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity involved in apoptotic process; dynein complex binding; enzyme binding; ferrous iron binding; histone binding; Hsp70 protein binding; identical protein binding; kinesin binding; lipid binding; magnesium ion binding; metal ion binding; microtubule binding; molecular adaptor activity; oxidoreductase activity; phospholipase binding; phospholipid binding; phosphoprotein binding; protein binding; protein domain specific binding; SNARE binding; tau protein binding; zinc ion binding
Biological Process:  activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process; adult locomotory behavior; amyloid fibril formation; behavioral response to cocaine; cellular response to copper ion; cellular response to oxidative stress; chemical synaptic transmission; dopamine biosynthetic process; dopamine metabolic process; excitatory postsynaptic potential; fatty acid metabolic process; localization; long-term synaptic potentiation; membrane organization; microglial cell activation; mitochondrial ATP synthesis coupled electron transport; mitochondrial membrane organization; negative regulation of apoptotic process; negative regulation of chaperone-mediated autophagy; negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process; negative regulation of dopamine metabolic process; negative regulation of dopamine uptake involved in synaptic transmission; negative regulation of exocytosis; negative regulation of microtubule polymerization; negative regulation of monooxygenase activity; negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process; negative regulation of neuron death; negative regulation of norepinephrine uptake; negative regulation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor signaling pathway; negative regulation of protein phosphorylation; negative regulation of serotonin uptake; negative regulation of thrombin-activated receptor signaling pathway; negative regulation of transporter activity; neuron apoptotic process; neurotransmitter secretion; neutral lipid metabolic process; phospholipid metabolic process; positive regulation of endocytosis; positive regulation of exocytosis; positive regulation of glutathione peroxidase activity; positive regulation of hydrogen peroxide catabolic process; positive regulation of inflammatory response; positive regulation of inositol phosphate biosynthetic process; positive regulation of neuron death; positive regulation of neurotransmitter secretion; positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation; positive regulation of protein serine/threonine kinase activity; positive regulation of receptor recycling; positive regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol; positive regulation of SNARE complex assembly; positive regulation of synaptic transmission; protein complex oligomerization; protein destabilization; protein tetramerization; receptor internalization; regulation of acyl-CoA biosynthetic process; regulation of dopamine secretion; regulation of glutamate secretion; regulation of locomotion; regulation of long-term neuronal synaptic plasticity; regulation of macrophage activation; regulation of neuron apoptotic process; regulation of neuron death; regulation of neuronal synaptic plasticity; regulation of neurotransmitter secretion; regulation of norepinephrine uptake; regulation of phospholipase activity; regulation of presynapse assembly; regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process; regulation of transmembrane transporter activity; response to interleukin-1; response to iron(II) ion; response to lipopolysaccharide; response to magnesium ion; response to type II interferon; response to xenobiotic stimulus; SNARE complex assembly; synapse organization; synaptic transmission, dopaminergic; synaptic vesicle endocytosis; synaptic vesicle exocytosis; synaptic vesicle priming; synaptic vesicle transport
Reference #:  O55042 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: alp; alpha SYN; alpha-Syn; Alpha-synuclein; alphaSYN; NACP; Non-A beta component of AD amyloid; non-A4 component of amyloid; Non-A4 component of amyloid precursor; Snca; Syn; synuclein, alpha; SYUA
Gene Symbols: Snca
Molecular weight: 14,485 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 4.74  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
CST Pathways:  Parkinson's Disease
Protein-Specific Antibodies, siRNAs or Recombinant Proteins from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
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Protein Structure Not Found.

Cross-references to other databases:  AlphaFold  |  STRING  |  Reactome  |  BioGPS  |  Pfam  |  Phospho.ELM  |  NetworKIN  |  UniProtKB  |  Entrez-Gene  |  Ensembl Gene