DDIT3 Multifunctional transcription factor in ER stress response. Plays an essential role in the response to a wide variety of cell stresses and induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in response to ER stress. Plays a dual role both as an inhibitor of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) function and as an activator of other genes. Acts as a dominant-negative regulator of C/EBP-induced transcription: dimerizes with members of the C/EBP family, impairs their association with C/EBP binding sites in the promoter regions, and inhibits the expression of C/EBP regulated genes. Positively regulates the transcription of TRIB3, IL6, IL8, IL23, TNFRSF10B/DR5, PPP1R15A/GADD34, BBC3/PUMA, BCL2L11/BIM and ERO1L. Negatively regulates; expression of BCL2 and MYOD1, ATF4-dependent transcriptional activation of asparagine synthetase (ASNS), CEBPA-dependent transcriptional activation of hepcidin (HAMP) and CEBPB-mediated expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG). Inhibits the canonical Wnt signaling pathway by binding to TCF7L2/TCF4, impairing its DNA-binding properties and repressing its transcriptional activity. Plays a regulatory role in the inflammatory response through the induction of caspase-11 (CASP4/CASP11) which induces the activation of caspase-1 (CASP1) and both these caspases increase the activation of pro-IL1B to mature IL1B which is involved in the inflammatory response. Belongs to the bZIP family. 3 alternative splicing and alternative initiation human isoforms have been reported. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Autophagy; DNA-binding; Oncoprotein; Transcription factor
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 10|10 D3
Cellular Component:  CHOP-ATF3 complex; CHOP-ATF4 complex; CHOP-C/EBP complex; cytoplasm; late endosome; nucleus; protein-DNA complex
Molecular Function:  cAMP response element binding protein binding; DNA binding; DNA-binding transcription activator activity, RNA polymerase II-specific; DNA-binding transcription factor activity; leucine zipper domain binding; protein binding; protein heterodimerization activity; RNA polymerase II proximal promoter sequence-specific DNA binding; transcription factor binding; transcription regulatory region DNA binding; transcription regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding
Biological Process:  apoptotic process; blood vessel maturation; cell cycle; cell cycle arrest; cell redox homeostasis; endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response; ER overload response; establishment of protein localization to mitochondrion; intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress; intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to nitrosative stress; mRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II; negative regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway; negative regulation of cold-induced thermogenesis; negative regulation of CREB transcription factor activity; negative regulation of determination of dorsal identity; negative regulation of DNA binding; negative regulation of DNA-binding transcription factor activity; negative regulation of fat cell differentiation; negative regulation of myoblast differentiation; negative regulation of protein kinase B signaling; negative regulation of RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding; negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II; negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated; positive regulation of apoptotic process; positive regulation of autophagy in response to ER overload; positive regulation of DNA-binding transcription factor activity; positive regulation of interleukin-8 production; positive regulation of intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway; positive regulation of neuron apoptotic process; positive regulation of neuron death; positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II; positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress; positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated; proteasome-mediated ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process; protein complex oligomerization; regulation of autophagy; regulation of transcription involved in anterior/posterior axis specification; regulation of transcription, DNA-templated; release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol; response to endoplasmic reticulum stress; response to starvation; response to unfolded protein; Wnt signaling pathway
Reference #:  P35639 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: C/EBP homoologous protein 10; C/EBP-homologous protein; C/EBP-homologous protein 10; CHOP; CHOP-10; Chop10; DDIT-3; Ddit3; DNA damage-inducible transcript 3; DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 protein; DNA-damage inducible transcript 3; Gadd153; Growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein GADD153
Gene Symbols: Ddit3
Molecular weight: 19,189 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 4.65  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
CST Pathways:  Regulation of P38 MAPKs
Protein-Specific Antibodies or siRNAs from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
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Protein Structure Not Found.

Cross-references to other databases:  STRING  |  Reactome  |  BioGPS  |  Pfam  |  Phospho.ELM  |  NetworKIN  |  UniProtKB  |  Entrez-Gene  |  GenPept  |  Ensembl Gene  |  Ensembl Protein