ERK1 a serine/threonine kinase of the GMGC group that plays a critical role in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation. ERK1 (MAPK3) and ERK2 (MAPK1) play central roles in MAPK cascades and are activated by a wide variety of extracellular signals including growth and neurotrophic factors, cytokines, hormones and neurotransmitters. Depending on the cellular context, MAPK cascades mediate diverse biological functions such as cell growth, adhesion, survival and differentiation through the regulation of transcription, translation, cytoskeletal rearrangements. MAPK cascades also plays a role in initiation and regulation of meiosis, mitosis, and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells by phosphorylating a number of transcription factors. Activation of MAP kinases occurs through phosphorylation of threonine and tyrosine residues at the sequence T*EY* by upstream MAP kinase kinases, MEK1 and -2. Phosphorylation of both the threonine and tyrosine are required for activity. This phosphorylation causes dramatic conformational changes, which enable full activation and interaction of MAPK1/ERK2 with its substrates. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: CMGC group; EC; ERK subfamily; Kinase, protein; MAPK family; MAPK/ERK subfamily; Protein kinase, CMGC; Protein kinase, Ser/Thr (non-receptor)
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 1q36
Cellular Component:  caveola; cytoplasm; cytoskeleton; cytosol; early endosome; focal adhesion; Golgi apparatus; late endosome; mitochondrion; nuclear envelope; nucleoplasm; nucleus; plasma membrane; protein-containing complex; pseudopodium
Molecular Function:  ATP binding; identical protein binding; MAP kinase activity; MAP kinase kinase activity; phosphatase binding; phosphotyrosine residue binding; protein binding; protein kinase activity; protein serine/threonine kinase activity; scaffold protein binding
Biological Process:  activation of MAPK activity; aging; animal organ morphogenesis; apoptotic process; arachidonic acid metabolic process; Bergmann glial cell differentiation; BMP signaling pathway; cardiac neural crest cell development involved in heart development; cartilage development; caveolin-mediated endocytosis; cellular response to amino acid starvation; cellular response to cadmium ion; cellular response to DNA damage stimulus; cellular response to dopamine; cellular response to mechanical stimulus; cellular response to organic substance; cellular response to reactive oxygen species; cellular response to tumor necrosis factor; decidualization; DNA damage induced protein phosphorylation; ERK1 and ERK2 cascade; face development; interleukin-1-mediated signaling pathway; intracellular signal transduction; lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway; lung morphogenesis; MAPK cascade; negative regulation of apolipoprotein binding; neural crest cell development; outer ear morphogenesis; peptidyl-serine phosphorylation; peptidyl-tyrosine autophosphorylation; phosphorylation; positive regulation of cyclase activity; positive regulation of cytokine secretion involved in immune response; positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade; positive regulation of gene expression; positive regulation of histone acetylation; positive regulation of histone phosphorylation; positive regulation of macrophage chemotaxis; positive regulation of metallopeptidase activity; positive regulation of protein phosphorylation; positive regulation of telomerase activity; positive regulation of telomere capping; positive regulation of telomere maintenance via telomerase; positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II; positive regulation of translation; positive regulation of xenophagy; protein phosphorylation; protein-containing complex assembly; regulation of cellular pH; regulation of cytoskeleton organization; regulation of DNA-binding transcription factor activity; regulation of early endosome to late endosome transport; regulation of gene expression; regulation of Golgi inheritance; regulation of ossification; regulation of stress-activated MAPK cascade; response to epidermal growth factor; response to exogenous dsRNA; response to lipopolysaccharide; response to toxic substance; sensory perception of pain; stress-activated MAPK cascade; thymus development; thyroid gland development; trachea formation; transcription, DNA-templated
Reference #:  P21708 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: ERK; ERK-1; Erk1; ERT2; Esrk1; Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1; extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1; Insulin-stimulated MAP2 kinase; MAP kinase 1; MAP kinase 3; MAP kinase isoform p44; MAPK 1; MAPK 3; Mapk3; Microtubule-associated protein 2 kinase; mitogen activated kinase 3; mitogen activated protein kinase 3; mitogen-activated 3 (MAP kinase 3); Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1; Mitogen-activated protein kinase 3; MK03; MNK1; p44; p44-ERK1; p44-MAPK; p44erk1; p44mapk; Prkm3; Protein kinase mitogen activated 3 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1 ERK1); protein kinase, mitogen activated 3 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1, ERK1)
Gene Symbols: Mapk3
Molecular weight: 43,081 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 6.15  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
CST Pathways:  Angiogenesis  |  Apoptosis Regulation  |  B Cell Receptor Signaling  |  ErbB/HER Signaling  |  ESC Pluripotency and Differentiation  |  GPCR Signaling to MAPKs  |  Growth And Differentiation Control by MAPKs  |  IL6 Signaling  |  Inhibition of Apoptosis  |  Insulin Receptor Signaling  |  Microtubule Dynamics  |  Mitochondrial Control of Apoptosis  |  mTOR Signaling  |  T Cell Receptor Signaling  |  TGF-ß Signaling  |  Translation: eIF4E and p70S6K  |  Warburg Effect
Protein-Specific Antibodies or siRNAs from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
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Cross-references to other databases:  STRING  |  Reactome  |  BioGPS  |  Pfam  |  ENZYME  |  Phospho.ELM  |  NetworKIN  |  UniProtKB  |  Entrez-Gene  |  Ensembl Gene