a ligand-activated transcription factor of the nuclear receptor family. Receptor for glucocorticoids (GC). Has a dual mode of action: as a transcription factor that binds to glucocorticoid response elements (GRE), both for nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, and as a modulator of other transcription factors. Affects inflammatory responses, cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Involved in chromatin remodeling. Plays a role in rapid mRNA degradation by binding to the 5' UTR of target mRNAs and interacting with PNRC2 in a ligand-dependent manner which recruits the RNA helicase UPF1 and the mRNA-decapping enzyme DCP1A, leading to RNA decay. Belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor family. NR3 subfamily. Widely expressed including bone, stomach, lung, liver, colon, breast, ovary, pancreas and kidney. In the heart, detected in left and right atria, left and right ventricles, aorta, apex, intraventricular septum, and atrioventricular node as well as whole adult and fetal heart. 16 alternative splicing and alternative initiation human isoforms have been reported. Isoform 1 has transcriptional activation and repression activity. Mediates glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis. Promotes accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis. May act as a tumor suppressor. May play a negative role in adipogenesis through the regulation of lipolytic and antilipogenic gene expression. Isoform 2 acts as a dominant negative inhibitor of isoform 1. Has intrinsic transcriptional activity independent of isoform 1 when both are coexpressed. Has no hormone-binding activity. May play a role in controlling glucose metabolism by maintaining insulin sensitivity. Reduces hepatic gluconeogenesis through down-regulation of PEPCK in an isoform 1-dependent manner. Directly regulates STAT1 expression in isoform 1-independent manner. Widely expressed including brain, bone marrow, thymus, spleen, liver, kidney, pancreas, lung, fat, skeletal muscle, heart, placenta and blood leukocytes. Isoform 3 has lower transcriptional activation activity than isoform 1. Exerts a dominant negative effect on isoform 1 via a trans-repression mechanism. Isoform 4 increases activity of isoform 1. Isoform 8 more effective than isoform 1 in transcriptional activation, but not repression activity. Isoform 13 has highest transcriptional activation activity of all isoforms created by alternative initiation. Has transcriptional repression activity. Mediates glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis. Isoform 16 has lowest transcriptional activation activity of all isoforms created by alternative initiation. Has transcriptional repression activity. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: DNA-binding; Mitochondrial; Nuclear receptor; Transcription factor
Alt. Names/Synonyms: GCCR; GCR; GCRST; glucocorticoid nuclear receptor variant 1; Glucocorticoid receptor; GR; GRL; NR3C1; Nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 1; nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 1 variant hGR-B(54); nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 1 variant hGR-B(77); nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 1 variant hGR-B(93); nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1 (glucocorticoid receptor)