As part of the heterotrimeric replication protein A complex (RPA/RP-A), binds and stabilizes single-stranded DNA intermediates, that form during DNA replication or upon DNA stress. It prevents their reannealing and in parallel, recruits and activates different proteins and complexes involved in DNA metabolism. Thereby, it plays an essential role both in DNA replication and the cellular response to DNA damage. In the cellular response to DNA damage, the RPA complex controls DNA repair and DNA damage checkpoint activation. Through recruitment of ATRIP activates the ATR kinase a master regulator of the DNA damage response. It is required for the recruitment of the DNA double-strand break repair factors RAD51 and RAD52 to chromatin in response to DNA damage. Also recruits to sites of DNA damage proteins like XPA and XPG that are involved in nucleotide excision repair and is required for this mechanism of DNA repair. Plays also a role in base excision repair (BER) probably through interaction with UNG. Also recruits SMARCAL1/HARP, which is involved in replication fork restart, to sites of DNA damage. May also play a role in telomere maintenance. Belongs to the replication factor A protein 2 family. 3 alternatively spliced human isoforms have been reported. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Cellular Component: chromatin; DNA replication factor A complex; nuclear body; nucleoplasm; nucleus; PML body
Molecular Function: damaged DNA binding; enzyme binding; G-rich strand telomeric DNA binding; protein binding; protein N-terminus binding; protein phosphatase binding; single-stranded DNA binding; ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Biological Process: base-excision repair; DNA damage response, detection of DNA damage; DNA replication; double-strand break repair via homologous recombination; error-free translesion synthesis; error-prone translesion synthesis; G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle; interstrand cross-link repair; mismatch repair; mitotic G1 DNA damage checkpoint; nucleotide-excision repair; nucleotide-excision repair, DNA gap filling; nucleotide-excision repair, DNA incision; nucleotide-excision repair, DNA incision, 3'-to lesion; nucleotide-excision repair, DNA incision, 5'-to lesion; nucleotide-excision repair, preincision complex assembly; nucleotide-excision repair, preincision complex stabilization; protein localization to chromosome; regulation of cellular response to heat; regulation of DNA damage checkpoint; regulation of double-strand break repair via homologous recombination; regulation of signal transduction by p53 class mediator; telomere maintenance; telomere maintenance via semi-conservative replication; transcription-coupled nucleotide-excision repair; translesion synthesis
Alt. Names/Synonyms: REPA2; Replication factor A protein 2; Replication protein A 32 kDa subunit; Replication protein A 34 kDa subunit; replication protein A2; replication protein A2, 32kDa; RF-A protein 2; RFA2; RP-A p32; RP-A p34; RPA2; RPA32; RPA34