NRG1 Direct ligand for ERBB3 and ERBB4 tyrosine kinase receptors. Concomitantly recruits ERBB1 and ERBB2 coreceptors, resulting in ligand-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of the ERBB receptors. The multiple isoforms perform diverse functions such as inducing growth and differentiation of epithelial, glial, neuronal, and skeletal muscle cells; inducing expression of acetylcholine receptor in synaptic vesicles during the formation of the neuromuscular junction; stimulating lobuloalveolar budding and milk production in the mammary gland and inducing differentiation of mammary tumor cells; stimulating Schwann cell proliferation; implication in the development of the myocardium such as trabeculation of the developing heart. Isoform 10 may play a role in motor and sensory neuron development. Binds to ERBB4. Binds to ERBB3. Acts as a ligand for integrins and binds (via EGF domain) to integrins ITGAV:ITGB3 or ITGA6:ITGB4. Its binding to integrins and subsequent ternary complex formation with integrins and ERRB3 are essential for NRG1-ERBB signaling. Induces the phosphorylation and activation of MAPK3/ERK1, MAPK1/ERK2 and AKT1. Ligand-dependent ERBB4 endocytosis is essential for the NRG1-mediated activation of these kinases in neurons. Belongs to the neuregulin family. Type I isoforms are the predominant forms expressed in the endocardium. Isoform alpha is expressed in breast, ovary, testis, prostate, heart, skeletal muscle, lung, placenta liver, kidney, salivary gland, small intestine and brain, but not in uterus, stomach, pancreas, and spleen. Isoform 3 is the predominant form in mesenchymal cells and in non-neuronal organs, whereas isoform 6 is the major neuronal form. Isoform 8 is expressed in spinal cord and brain. Isoform 9 is the major form in skeletal muscle cells; in the nervous system it is expressed in spinal cord and brain. Also detected in adult heart, placenta, lung, liver, kidney, and pancreas. Isoform 10 is expressed in nervous system: spinal cord motor neurons, dorsal root ganglion neurons, and brain. Predominant isoform expressed in sensory and motor neurons. Not detected in adult heart, placenta, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney, and pancreas. Not expressed in fetal lung, liver and kidney. Type IV isoforms are brain-specific. 9 alternatively spliced human isoforms have been reported. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Cell development/differentiation; Cytokine; Ligand, receptor tyrosine kinase; Membrane protein, integral; Motility/polarity/chemotaxis
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 8|8 A3
Cellular Component:  axolemma; axon; cell body; cytoplasm; dendrite; external side of plasma membrane; extracellular region; extracellular space; GABA-ergic synapse; glutamatergic synapse; integral component of plasma membrane; neuromuscular junction; nucleus; plasma membrane; synapse
Molecular Function:  chemorepellent activity; ErbB-2 class receptor binding; protein binding; protein tyrosine kinase activator activity; receptor tyrosine kinase binding; signaling receptor binding; transcription coregulator activity
Biological Process:  activation of transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity; axon ensheathment; brain development; cardiac conduction system development; cardiac muscle cell differentiation; cardiac muscle tissue development; cell migration; cell morphogenesis; cellular protein complex disassembly; chemorepulsion involved in interneuron migration from the subpallium to the cortex; glial cell differentiation; glial cell fate commitment; heart development; intracellular signal transduction; locomotory behavior; MAPK cascade; muscle organ development; myelination in peripheral nervous system; negative regulation of neuron migration; negative regulation of protein catabolic process; negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated; nervous system development; neurogenesis; neuron fate commitment; neurotransmitter receptor metabolic process; oligodendrocyte differentiation; peripheral nervous system development; positive regulation of axon extension; positive regulation of calcineurin-NFAT signaling cascade; positive regulation of cardiac muscle cell differentiation; positive regulation of dendritic spine development; positive regulation of gene expression; positive regulation of myelination; positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation; positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling; positive regulation of protein kinase activity; positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling; positive regulation of protein localization to cell surface; positive regulation of Ras protein signal transduction; positive regulation of striated muscle cell differentiation; positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II; postsynapse to nucleus signaling pathway; regulation of cell differentiation; startle response; synapse assembly
Reference #:  Q6DR98 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: 6030402G23Rik; ARIA; D230005F13Rik; GGF; GGFII; hereg; heregulin; Hgl; HRG; HRGalpha; NDF; Neuregulin 1; Neuregulin-1 type I beta1-a; Nrg1; pro-neuregulin-1, membrane-bound isoform; SMD; SMDF; type I neuregulin 1; type III neuregulin 1
Gene Symbols: Nrg1
Molecular weight: 71,382 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 8.81  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
CST Pathways:  ErbB/HER Signaling
Protein-Specific Antibodies, siRNAs or Recombinant Proteins from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
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Protein Structure Not Found.

Cross-references to other databases:  STRING  |  Reactome  |  BioGPS  |  Pfam  |  Phospho.ELM  |  NetworKIN  |  UniProtKB  |  Entrez-Gene  |  Ensembl Gene