NRG1 Direct ligand for ERBB3 and ERBB4 tyrosine kinase receptors. Concomitantly recruits ERBB1 and ERBB2 coreceptors, resulting in ligand-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of the ERBB receptors. The multiple isoforms perform diverse functions such as inducing growth and differentiation of epithelial, glial, neuronal, and skeletal muscle cells; inducing expression of acetylcholine receptor in synaptic vesicles during the formation of the neuromuscular junction; stimulating lobuloalveolar budding and milk production in the mammary gland and inducing differentiation of mammary tumor cells; stimulating Schwann cell proliferation; implication in the development of the myocardium such as trabeculation of the developing heart. Isoform 10 may play a role in motor and sensory neuron development. The cytoplasmic domain interacts with the LIM domain region of LIMK1. Interacts with ERBB3 and ERBB4. Type I isoforms are the predominant forms expressed in the endocardium. Isoform alpha is expressed in breast, ovary, testis, prostate, heart, skeletal muscle, lung, placenta liver, kidney, salivary gland, small intestine and brain, but not in uterus, stomach, pancreas, and spleen. Isoform 3 is the predominant form in mesenchymal cells and in non-neuronal organs, whereas isoform 6 is the major neuronal form. Isoform 8 is expressed in spinal cord and brain. Isoform 9 is the major form in skeletal muscle cells; in the nervous system it is expressed in spinal cord and brain. Also detected in adult heart, placenta, lung, liver, kidney, and pancreas. Isoform 10 is expressed in nervous system: spinal cord motor neurons, dorsal root ganglion neurons, and brain. Predominant isoform expressed in sensory and motor neurons. Not detected in adult heart, placenta, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney, and pancreas. Not expressed in fetal lung, liver and kidney. Type IV isoforms are brain-specific. Belongs to the neuregulin family. 10 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Cell development/differentiation; Cytokine; Ligand, receptor tyrosine kinase; Membrane protein, integral; Motility/polarity/chemotaxis
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 8p12
Cellular Component:  axon; cytoplasm; extracellular region; GABA-ergic synapse; glutamatergic synapse; integral component of plasma membrane; membrane; neuromuscular junction; nucleoplasm
Molecular Function:  chemorepellent activity; cytokine activity; ErbB-2 class receptor binding; ErbB-3 class receptor binding; growth factor activity; integrin binding; receptor tyrosine kinase binding; transcription coregulator activity; transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activator activity
Biological Process:  activation of MAPK activity; activation of protein kinase B activity; cardiac conduction system development; cardiac muscle cell differentiation; cardiac muscle cell myoblast differentiation; cell communication; cell morphogenesis; chemorepulsion involved in interneuron migration from the subpallium to the cortex; endocardial cell differentiation; ERBB signaling pathway; ERBB2 signaling pathway; ERBB3 signaling pathway; glial cell fate commitment; locomotory behavior; mammary gland development; MAPK cascade; myelination in peripheral nervous system; negative regulation of neuron migration; negative regulation of protein catabolic process; negative regulation of secretion; negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated; nervous system development; neural crest cell development; neuron fate commitment; neurotransmitter receptor metabolic process; oligodendrocyte differentiation; positive regulation of calcineurin-NFAT signaling cascade; positive regulation of cardiac muscle cell differentiation; positive regulation of cell proliferation; positive regulation of gene expression; positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling; positive regulation of protein tyrosine kinase activity; positive regulation of Ras protein signal transduction; positive regulation of striated muscle cell differentiation; postsynapse to nucleus signaling pathway; regulation of cell motility; regulation of protein heterodimerization activity; regulation of protein homodimerization activity; regulation of signaling receptor activity; synapse assembly; ventricular trabecula myocardium morphogenesis; wound healing
Disease: Schizophrenia 6
Reference #:  Q02297 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: Acetylcholine receptor-inducing activity; ARIA; Breast cancer cell differentiation factor p45; GGF; GGF2; Glial growth factor; Heregulin; heregulin, alpha (45kD, ERBB2 p185-activator); HGL; HRG; HRG1; HRGA; NDF; Neu differentiation factor; neuregulin 1; Neuregulin-1; NRG1; Pro-neuregulin-1, membrane-bound isoform; Pro-NRG1; sensory and motor neuron derived factor; Sensory and motor neuron-derived factor; SMDF
Gene Symbols: NRG1
Molecular weight: 70,392 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
CST Pathways:  ErbB/HER Signaling
Protein-Specific Antibodies or siRNAs from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
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Protein Structure Not Found.

Cross-references to other databases:  STRING  |  cBioPortal  |  Wikipedia  |  Reactome  |  neXtProt  |  Protein Atlas  |  BioGPS  |  Pfam  |  RCSB PDB  |  Phospho3D  |  Phospho.ELM  |  NetworKIN  |  GeneCards  |  UniProtKB  |  Entrez-Gene  |  GenPept  |  Ensembl Gene  |  InnateDB  |  Ensembl Protein