POLR2A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. Largest and catalytic component of RNA polymerase II which synthesizes mRNA precursors and many functional non-coding RNAs. Forms the polymerase active center together with the second largest subunit. Pol II is the central component of the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. It is composed of mobile elements that move relative to each other. RPB1 is part of the core element with the central large cleft, the clamp element that moves to open and close the cleft and the jaws that are thought to grab the incoming DNA template. At the start of transcription, a single-stranded DNA template strand of the promoter is positioned within the central active site cleft of Pol II. A bridging helix emanates from RPB1 and crosses the cleft near the catalytic site and is thought to promote translocation of Pol II by acting as a ratchet that moves the RNA-DNA hybrid through the active site by switching from straight to bent conformations at each step of nucleotide addition. During transcription elongation, Pol II moves on the template as the transcript elongates. Elongation is influenced by the phosphorylation status of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of Pol II largest subunit (RPB1), which serves as a platform for assembly of factors that regulate transcription initiation, elongation, termination and mRNA processing. Regulation of gene expression levels depends on the balance between methylation and acetylation levels of tha CTD-lysines. Initiation or early elongation steps of transcription of growth-factors-induced immediate early genes are regulated by the acetylation status of the CTD. Methylation and dimethylation have a repressive effect on target genes expression. (Microbial infection) Acts as an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase when associated with small delta antigen of Hepatitis delta virus, acting both as a replicate and transcriptase for the viral RNA circular genome. Belongs to the RNA polymerase beta' chain family. 2 alternatively spliced human isoforms have been reported. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: EC; EC; Nucleotide Metabolism - purine; Nucleotide Metabolism - pyrimidine; Transcription initiation complex; Transferase
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 17p13.1
Cellular Component:  cytoplasm; nucleoplasm; nucleus; RNA polymerase II, core complex
Molecular Function:  DNA binding; DNA-directed 5'-3' RNA polymerase activity; metal ion binding; promoter-specific chromatin binding; protein binding; protein C-terminus binding; RNA-directed 5'-3' RNA polymerase activity; ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Biological Process:  7-methylguanosine mRNA capping; DNA-templated transcription, termination; fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway; mRNA splicing, via spliceosome; positive regulation of RNA splicing; positive regulation of viral transcription; regulation of gene silencing by miRNA; regulation of transcription, DNA-templated; RNA metabolic process; snRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II; somatic stem cell population maintenance; transcription by RNA polymerase II; transcription elongation from RNA polymerase II promoter; transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter; transcription, DNA-templated; transcription, RNA-templated; transcription-coupled nucleotide-excision repair
Disease: Neurodevelopmental Disorder With Hypotonia And Variable Intellectual And Behavioral Abnormalities
Reference #:  P24928 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: DNA-directed RNA polymerase II largest subunit, RNA polymerase II 220 kd subunit; DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit A; DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB1; DNA-directed RNA polymerase III largest subunit; hRPB220; hsRPB1; MGC75453; NEDHIB; POL II; POLR2; POLR2A; POLRA; polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide A, 220kDa; polymerase (RNA) II subunit A; RNA polymerase II subunit A; RNA polymerase II subunit B1; RNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB1; RNAPII; RPB1; RPBh1; RpIILS; RPO2; RPOL2
Gene Symbols: POLR2A
Molecular weight: 217,176 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 7.02  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
CST Pathways:  Protein Acetylation
Protein-Specific Antibodies, siRNAs or Recombinant Proteins from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
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Protein Structure Not Found.

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