RAC1 Plasma membrane-associated small GTPase which cycles between active GTP-bound and inactive GDP-bound states. In its active state, binds to a variety of effector proteins to regulate cellular responses such as secretory processes, phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, epithelial cell polarization, neurons adhesion, migration and differentiation, and growth-factor induced formation of membrane ruffles. Rac1 p21/rho GDI heterodimer is the active component of the cytosolic factor sigma 1, which is involved in stimulation of the NADPH oxidase activity in macrophages. Essential for the SPATA13-mediated regulation of cell migration and adhesion assembly and disassembly. Stimulates PKN2 kinase activity. In concert with RAB7A, plays a role in regulating the formation of RBs (ruffled borders) in osteoclasts. In podocytes, promotes nuclear shuttling of NR3C2; this modulation is required for a proper kidney functioning. Required for atypical chemokine receptor ACKR2-induced LIMK1-PAK1-dependent phosphorylation of cofilin (CFL1) and for up-regulation of ACKR2 from endosomal compartment to cell membrane, increasing its efficiency in chemokine uptake and degradation. In neurons, is involved in dendritic spine formation and synaptic plasticity. In synapses, seems to mediate the regulation of F-actin cluster formation performed by SHANK3. Isoform B has an accelerated GEF-independent GDP/GTP exchange and an impaired GTP hydrolysis, which is restored partially by GTPase-activating proteins. It is able to bind to the GTPase-binding domain of PAK but not full-length PAK in a GTP-dependent manner, suggesting that the insertion does not completely abolish effector interaction. Belongs to the small GTPase superfamily. Rho family. Isoform B is predominantly identified in skin and epithelial tissues from the intestinal tract. Its expression is elevated in colorectal tumors at various stages of neoplastic progression, as compared to their respective adjacent tissues. 1 alternatively spliced human isoform has been reported. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: G protein; G protein, monomeric; G protein, monomeric, Rho; Motility/polarity/chemotaxis
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 7p22.1
Cellular Component:  cytoplasm; cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein granule; cytosol; dendritic spine; endoplasmic reticulum membrane; ficolin-1-rich granule membrane; glutamatergic synapse; Golgi membrane; lamellipodium; melanosome; membrane; plasma membrane; postsynapse; recycling endosome membrane; ruffle membrane; secretory granule membrane; trans-Golgi network
Molecular Function:  ATPase binding; enzyme binding; GTP binding; GTPase activity; histone deacetylase binding; protein binding; protein kinase binding; protein-containing complex binding; Rab GTPase binding; Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor binding; thioesterase binding
Biological Process:  actin cytoskeleton organization; actin filament polymerization; anatomical structure morphogenesis; blood coagulation; bone resorption; cell adhesion; cell motility; cell proliferation; cell-matrix adhesion; cellular response to mechanical stimulus; ephrin receptor signaling pathway; Fc-epsilon receptor signaling pathway; Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis; hepatocyte growth factor receptor signaling pathway; inflammatory response; intracellular signal transduction; lamellipodium assembly; localization within membrane; mast cell chemotaxis; negative regulation of interleukin-23 production; negative regulation of receptor-mediated endocytosis; neuron migration; neutrophil degranulation; positive regulation of cell-substrate adhesion; positive regulation of DNA replication; positive regulation of focal adhesion assembly; positive regulation of insulin secretion involved in cellular response to glucose stimulus; positive regulation of lamellipodium assembly; positive regulation of microtubule polymerization; positive regulation of neutrophil chemotaxis; positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling; positive regulation of protein phosphorylation; positive regulation of Rho protein signal transduction; positive regulation of stress fiber assembly; positive regulation of substrate adhesion-dependent cell spreading; regulation of cell migration; regulation of cell size; regulation of defense response to virus by virus; regulation of hydrogen peroxide metabolic process; regulation of lamellipodium assembly; regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process; regulation of respiratory burst; regulation of small GTPase mediated signal transduction; regulation of stress fiber assembly; response to wounding; ruffle assembly; ruffle organization; semaphorin-plexin signaling pathway; substrate adhesion-dependent cell spreading; T cell costimulation; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway; Wnt signaling pathway, planar cell polarity pathway
Disease: Mental Retardation, Autosomal Dominant 48
Reference #:  P63000 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: Cell migration-inducing gene 5 protein; MGC111543; MIG5; migration-inducing gene 5; p21-Rac1; RAC1; Ras-like protein TC25; Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1; ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac1); rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac1; TC-25; TC25
Gene Symbols: RAC1
Molecular weight: 21,450 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 8.77  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
CST Pathways:  Actin Dynamics  |  Adherens Junction Dynamics  |  B Cell Receptor Signaling  |  ErbB/HER Signaling  |  Growth And Differentiation Control by MAPKs  |  Microtubule Dynamics  |  SAPK/JNK Signaling Cascades  |  T Cell Receptor Signaling  |  TGF-ß Signaling  |  Wnt/ß-Catenin Signaling
Protein-Specific Antibodies or siRNAs from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
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Protein Structure Not Found.

Cross-references to other databases:  STRING  |  cBioPortal  |  Wikipedia  |  Reactome  |  neXtProt  |  Protein Atlas  |  BioGPS  |  Pfam  |  RCSB PDB  |  Phospho3D  |  Phospho.ELM  |  NetworKIN  |  GeneCards  |  UniProtKB  |  Entrez-Gene  |  GenPept  |  Ensembl Gene  |  InnateDB  |  Ensembl Protein