APOBEC3B a DNA cytidine deaminase involved in foreign DNA clearance. Acts as an inhibitor of retrovirus replication and retrotransposon mobility via deaminase-dependent and -independent mechanisms. After the penetration of retroviral nucleocapsids into target cells of infection and the initiation of reverse transcription, it can induce the conversion of cytosine to uracil in the minus-sense single-strand viral DNA, leading to G-to-A hypermutations in the subsequent plus-strand viral DNA. The resultant detrimental levels of mutations in the proviral genome, along with a deamination-independent mechanism that works prior to the proviral integration, together exert efficient antiretroviral effects in infected target cells. Selectively targets single-stranded DNA and does not deaminate double-stranded DNA or single-or double-stranded RNA. Exhibits antiviral activity against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and may inhibit the mobility of LTR and non-LTR retrotransposons. Homodimer. Interacts with APOBEC3G. Does not interact with APOBEC1. Expressed at high and moderate levels in peripheral blood leukocytes, spleen, testes, heart, thymus, prostate and ovary. Also expressed at low levels in several other tissues. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induces overexpression in keratinocytes. Up-regulated by IFN-alpha. Belongs to the cytidine and deoxycytidylate deaminase family. 2 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: EC 3.5.4.-; Hydrolase; RNA-binding
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 15 48.6 cM|15 E1
Cellular Component:  cytoplasm; nucleus
Molecular Function:  catalytic activity; cytidine deaminase activity; deoxycytidine deaminase activity; hydrolase activity; metal ion binding; protein binding; RNA binding; zinc ion binding
Biological Process:  cytidine to uridine editing; defense response to virus; DNA demethylation; hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation; immune system process; innate immune response; negative regulation of transposition; negative regulation of viral genome replication; regulation of defense response to virus; regulation of viral life cycle
Reference #:  Q99J72 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: ABEC3; Apobec3; apolipoprotein B editing complex 3; apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide 3; Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing complex 3; Arp3; BC003314; CEM-15; CEM15; DNA dC->dU-editing enzyme APOBEC-3; MGC7002; recovery from Friend virus 3; Rfv3
Gene Symbols: Apobec3
Molecular weight: 52,213 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 9.29  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
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Protein Structure Not Found.

Cross-references to other databases:  STRING  |  BioGPS  |  Pfam  |  ENZYME  |  Phospho.ELM  |  NetworKIN  |  UniProtKB  |  Entrez-Gene  |  GenPept  |  Ensembl Gene