a subunit of NF-kappa-B transcription complex (NFkB), which plays a crucial role in biological processes such as inflammation, immunity, differentiation, cell growth, tumorigenesis and apoptosis. NFkB consists of homo- or heterodimeric complexes formed from the five NFkB proteins in mammals: RelA, RelB, c-REL, NFkB1, and NFkB2. They form a variety of homodimers and heterodimers, each binding at kappa-B sites in the DNA, regulating distinct sets of genes. Different dimer combinations act as transcriptional activators or repressors. For example,RELA-NFkB1 and RELA-REL complexes function as transcriptional activators. NFkB complexes are held in the cytoplasm in an inactive state complexed with IkB proteins. When IkB is phosphorylated by IkB kinases (IKKs), it is degraded, allowing active NFkB complexes to translocate to the nucleus. Essential for cytokine gene expression in T-cells. RELA-RELA complexes appear to be involved in invasin-mediated activation of IL-8 expression. Four alternatively spliced human isoforms have been reported. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: DNA-binding; Nuclear receptor co-regulator; Transcription factor
Molecular Function: actinin binding; activating transcription factor binding; ankyrin repeat binding; chromatin binding; chromatin DNA binding; DNA binding; DNA-binding transcription activator activity, RNA polymerase II-specific; DNA-binding transcription factor activity; DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific; DNA-binding transcription repressor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific; enzyme binding; histone deacetylase binding; identical protein binding; NF-kappaB binding; phosphate ion binding; protein binding; protein heterodimerization activity; protein homodimerization activity; protein kinase binding; protein N-terminus binding; protein-containing complex binding; repressing transcription factor binding; RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific DNA binding; RNA polymerase II proximal promoter sequence-specific DNA binding; RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding; RNA polymerase II transcription coactivator binding; transcription factor binding; transcription regulatory region DNA binding; ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Biological Process: acetaldehyde metabolic process; aging; animal organ morphogenesis; cellular defense response; cellular response to angiotensin; cellular response to hepatocyte growth factor stimulus; cellular response to hydrogen peroxide; cellular response to interleukin-1; cellular response to interleukin-6; cellular response to lipopolysaccharide; cellular response to lipoteichoic acid; cellular response to nicotine; cellular response to peptidoglycan; cellular response to tumor necrosis factor; cellular response to vascular endothelial growth factor stimulus; chromatin organization; cytokine-mediated signaling pathway; defense response to virus; Fc-epsilon receptor signaling pathway; hair follicle development; inflammatory response; interleukin-1-mediated signaling pathway; liver development; membrane protein intracellular domain proteolysis; negative regulation of apoptotic process; negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway; negative regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway; negative regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling; negative regulation of pri-miRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II; negative regulation of protein catabolic process; negative regulation of protein sumoylation; negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II; negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated; nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 signaling pathway; positive regulation of cell proliferation; positive regulation of chondrocyte differentiation; positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling; positive regulation of interleukin-12 biosynthetic process; positive regulation of leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelial cell; positive regulation of miRNA metabolic process; positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity; positive regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling; positive regulation of pri-miRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II; positive regulation of Schwann cell differentiation; positive regulation of T cell receptor signaling pathway; positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II; positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter involved in cellular response to chemical stimulus; positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated; positive regulation of type I interferon production; postsynapse to nucleus signaling pathway; pri-miRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II; regulation of DNA-templated transcription in response to stress; regulation of inflammatory response; regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling; regulation of transcription, DNA-templated; response to amino acid; response to cAMP; response to cobalamin; response to insulin; response to interleukin-1; response to morphine; response to muramyl dipeptide; response to muscle stretch; response to organic substance; response to progesterone; response to UV-B; stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway; T cell receptor signaling pathway; tumor necrosis factor-mediated signaling pathway; viral process