ADAR Catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of adenosine to inosine in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) referred to as A-to-I RNA editing. This may affect gene expression and function in a number of ways that include mRNA translation by changing codons and hence the amino acid sequence of proteins; pre-mRNA splicing by altering splice site recognition sequences; RNA stability by changing sequences involved in nuclease recognition; genetic stability in the case of RNA virus genomes by changing sequences during viral RNA replication; and RNA structure-dependent activities such as microRNA production or targeting or protein-RNA interactions. Can edit both viral and cellular RNAs and can edit RNAs at multiple sites (hyper-editing) or at specific sites (site-specific editing). Its cellular RNA substrates include: bladder cancer-associated protein (BLCAP), neurotransmitter receptors for glutamate (GRIA2) and serotonin (HTR2C) and GABA receptor (GABRA3). Site-specific RNA editing of transcripts encoding these proteins results in amino acid substitutions which consequently alters their functional activities. Exhibits low-level editing at the GRIA2 Q/R site, but edits efficiently at the R/G site and HOTSPOT1. Its viral RNA substrates include: hepatitis C virus (HCV), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), measles virus (MV), hepatitis delta virus (HDV), and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Exhibits either a proviral (HDV, MV, VSV and HIV-1) or an antiviral effect (HCV) and this can be editing-dependent (HDV and HCV), editing-independent (VSV and MV) or both (HIV-1). Impairs HCV replication via RNA editing at multiple sites. Enhances the replication of MV, VSV and HIV-1 through an editing-independent mechanism via suppression of EIF2AK2/PKR activation and function. Stimulates both the release and infectivity of HIV-1 viral particles by an editing-dependent mechanism where it associates with viral RNAs and edits adenosines in the 5'UTR and the Rev and Tat coding sequence. Can enhance viral replication of HDV via A-to-I editing at a site designated as amber/W, thereby changing an UAG amber stop codon to an UIG tryptophan (W) codon that permits synthesis of the large delta antigen (L-HDAg) which has a key role in the assembly of viral particles. However, high levels of ADAR1 inhibit HDV replication. Ubiquitously expressed, highest levels were found in brain and lung (PubMed:7972084). Isoform 5 is expressed at higher levels in astrocytomas as compared to normal brain tissue and expression increases strikingly with the severity of the tumor, being higher in the most aggressive tumors. 4 human isoforms generated by alternative promoter usage or alternative splicing have been reported. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: EC 3.5.4.37; Hydrolase; Nucleolus; RNA processing; RNA-binding
Chromosomal Location of mouse Ortholog: 3|3 F1
Cellular Component:  cytoplasm; nuclear speck; nucleolus; nucleoplasm; nucleus; supraspliceosomal complex
Molecular Function:  adenosine deaminase activity; DNA binding; double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase activity; double-stranded RNA binding; hydrolase activity; left-handed Z-DNA binding; metal ion binding; protein binding; RNA binding; tRNA-specific adenosine deaminase activity
Biological Process:  adenosine to inosine editing; base conversion or substitution editing; cellular response to virus; defense response to virus; definitive hemopoiesis; erythrocyte differentiation; gene silencing by RNA; hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation; hematopoietic stem cell homeostasis; immune system process; in utero embryonic development; innate immune response; miRNA loading onto RISC involved in gene silencing by miRNA; mRNA processing; negative regulation of apoptotic process; negative regulation of protein kinase activity by regulation of protein phosphorylation; negative regulation of RNA interference; negative regulation of type I interferon-mediated signaling pathway; negative regulation of viral genome replication; osteoblast differentiation; positive regulation of viral genome replication; pre-miRNA processing; production of miRNAs involved in gene silencing by miRNA; protein export from nucleus; protein import into nucleus; response to interferon-alpha; response to virus; RNA processing; somatic diversification of immune receptors via somatic mutation
Reference #:  Q99MU3 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: Adar; Adar1; Adar1p110; Adar1p150; adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific; AV242451; Double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase; DRADA; DSRAD; mZa; mZaADAR; OTTMUSP00000021978; OTTMUSP00000021979; RNA adenosine deaminase 1; RNA-specific adenosine deaminase p110 form; RNA-specific adenosine deaminase p150 form
Gene Symbols: Adar
Molecular weight: 130,447 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 8.93  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
Select Structure to View Below

ADAR

Protein Structure Not Found.


Cross-references to other databases:  AlphaFold  |  STRING  |  Reactome  |  BioGPS  |  Pfam  |  ENZYME  |  Phospho.ELM  |  NetworKIN  |  UniProtKB  |  Entrez-Gene  |  Ensembl Gene