ADAR Catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of adenosine to inosine in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) referred to as A-to-I RNA editing. This may affect gene expression and function in a number of ways that include mRNA translation by changing codons and hence the amino acid sequence of proteins; pre-mRNA splicing by altering splice site recognition sequences; RNA stability by changing sequences involved in nuclease recognition; genetic stability in the case of RNA virus genomes by changing sequences during viral RNA replication; and RNA structure-dependent activities such as microRNA production or targeting or protein-RNA interactions. Can edit both viral and cellular RNAs and can edit RNAs at multiple sites (hyper-editing) or at specific sites (site-specific editing). Its cellular RNA substrates include: bladder cancer-associated protein (BLCAP), neurotransmitter receptors for glutamate (GRIA2) and serotonin (HTR2C) and GABA receptor (GABRA3). Site-specific RNA editing of transcripts encoding these proteins results in amino acid substitutions which consequently alters their functional activities. Exhibits low-level editing at the GRIA2 Q/R site, but edits efficiently at the R/G site and HOTSPOT1. Its viral RNA substrates include: hepatitis C virus (HCV), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), measles virus (MV), hepatitis delta virus (HDV), and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Exhibits either a proviral (HDV, MV, VSV and HIV-1) or an antiviral effect (HCV) and this can be editing-dependent (HDV and HCV), editing-independent (VSV and MV) or both (HIV-1). Impairs HCV replication via RNA editing at multiple sites. Enhances the replication of MV, VSV and HIV-1 through an editing-independent mechanism via suppression of EIF2AK2/PKR activation and function. Stimulates both the release and infectivity of HIV-1 viral particles by an editing-dependent mechanism where it associates with viral RNAs and edits adenosines in the 5'UTR and the Rev and Tat coding sequence. Can enhance viral replication of HDV via A-to-I editing at a site designated as amber/W, thereby changing an UAG amber stop codon to an UIG tryptophan (W) codon that permits synthesis of the large delta antigen (L-HDAg) which has a key role in the assembly of viral particles. However, high levels of ADAR1 inhibit HDV replication. Ubiquitously expressed, highest levels were found in brain and lung (PubMed:7972084). Isoform 5 is expressed at higher levels in astrocytomas as compared to normal brain tissue and expression increases strikingly with the severity of the tumor, being higher in the most aggressive tumors. 4 human isoforms generated by alternative promoter usage or alternative splicing have been reported. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: EC; Hydrolase; Nucleolus; RNA processing; RNA-binding
Chromosomal Location of human Ortholog: 1q21.3
Cellular Component:  cytoplasm; nucleolus; nucleoplasm; nucleus; supraspliceosomal complex
Molecular Function:  DNA binding; double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase activity; double-stranded RNA binding; metal ion binding; protein binding; tRNA-specific adenosine deaminase activity
Biological Process:  adenosine to inosine editing; base conversion or substitution editing; cellular response to virus; defense response to virus; definitive hemopoiesis; erythrocyte differentiation; hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation; hematopoietic stem cell homeostasis; hepatocyte apoptotic process; innate immune response; mRNA processing; negative regulation of hepatocyte apoptotic process; negative regulation of post-transcriptional gene silencing by regulatory ncRNA; negative regulation of protein kinase activity by regulation of protein phosphorylation; negative regulation of type I interferon-mediated signaling pathway; osteoblast differentiation; positive regulation of viral genome replication; pre-miRNA processing; response to interferon-alpha; response to virus; RISC complex assembly; RNA processing; somatic diversification of immune receptors via somatic mutation
Disease: Aicardi-goutieres Syndrome 6; Dyschromatosis Symmetrica Hereditaria
Reference #:  P55265 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: 136 kDa double-stranded RNA binding protein; 136 kDa double-stranded RNA-binding protein; ADAR; ADAR1; adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1-A; adenosine deaminase RNA specific; adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific; AGS6; Double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase; DRADA; DSH; DSRAD; dsRNA adenosine deaminase; dsRNA adeonosine deaminase; G1P1; IFI-4; IFI4; interferon-induced protein 4; Interferon-inducible protein 4; K88DSRBP; p136
Gene Symbols: ADAR
Molecular weight: 136,066 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 8.86  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
Protein-Specific Antibodies, siRNAs or Recombinant Proteins from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
Select Structure to View Below


Protein Structure Not Found.

Cross-references to other databases:  AlphaFold  |  STRING  |  cBioPortal  |  Wikipedia  |  Reactome  |  neXtProt  |  Protein Atlas  |  BioGPS  |  Pfam  |  RCSB PDB  |  ENZYME  |  Phospho3D  |  Phospho.ELM  |  NetworKIN  |  GeneCards  |  UniProtKB  |  Entrez-Gene  |  Ensembl Gene  |  Ensembl Protein