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Protein Page:
TNF-a (human)

Overview
TNF-a Cytokine that binds to TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 and TNFRSF1B/TNFBR. It is mainly secreted by macrophages and can induce cell death of certain tumor cell lines. It is potent pyrogen causing fever by direct action or by stimulation of interleukin-1 secretion and is implicated in the induction of cachexia, Under certain conditions it can stimulate cell proliferation and induce cell differentiation. Homotrimer. Interacts with SPPL2B. Belongs to the tumor necrosis factor family. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Cytokine; Motility/polarity/chemotaxis; Apoptosis; Membrane protein, integral
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 6p21.3
Cellular Component: cell surface; external side of plasma membrane; extracellular region; extracellular space; integral to plasma membrane; lipid raft; phagocytic cup; plasma membrane; recycling endosome
Molecular Function: cytokine activity; identical protein binding; protease binding; protein binding; tumor necrosis factor receptor binding
Biological Process: activation of MAPK activity; activation of MAPKKK activity; activation of NF-kappaB transcription factor; caspase activation; cell surface receptor linked signal transduction; chronic inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus; cortical actin cytoskeleton organization and biogenesis; defense response to Gram-positive bacterium; DNA damage response, signal transduction resulting in induction of apoptosis; embryonic gut development; extracellular matrix organization and biogenesis; glucose metabolic process; humoral immune response; I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB cascade; induction of apoptosis via death domain receptors; inflammatory response; JNK cascade; leukocyte tethering or rolling; lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway; MAPKKK cascade; negative regulation of cytokine secretion during immune response; negative regulation of fat cell differentiation; negative regulation of glucose import; negative regulation of interleukin-6 production; negative regulation of lipid catabolic process; negative regulation of myoblast differentiation; negative regulation of osteoblast differentiation; negative regulation of protein complex disassembly; negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; negative regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent; negative regulation of viral genome replication; osteoclast differentiation; positive regulation of apoptosis; positive regulation of caspase activity; positive regulation of cell adhesion; positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process; positive regulation of chemokine production; positive regulation of chronic inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus; positive regulation of cytokine production; positive regulation of cytokine secretion; positive regulation of fever; positive regulation of hair follicle development; positive regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion; positive regulation of humoral immune response mediated by circulating immunoglobulin; positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB cascade; positive regulation of interferon-gamma production; positive regulation of interleukin-6 production; positive regulation of interleukin-8 biosynthetic process; positive regulation of interleukin-8 production; positive regulation of JNK activity; positive regulation of MAP kinase activity; positive regulation of membrane protein ectodomain proteolysis; positive regulation of NF-kappaB import into nucleus; positive regulation of NFAT protein import into nucleus; positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process; positive regulation of osteoclast differentiation; positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation; positive regulation of phagocytosis; positive regulation of programmed cell death; positive regulation of protein amino acid phosphorylation; positive regulation of protein complex assembly; positive regulation of protein complex disassembly; positive regulation of protein kinase activity; positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling cascade; positive regulation of protein transport; positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation; positive regulation of transcription factor activity; positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; positive regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent; positive regulation of translational initiation by iron; protein import into nucleus, translocation; protein kinase B signaling cascade; receptor biosynthetic process; regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB cascade; regulation of immunoglobulin secretion; regulation of insulin secretion; response to glucocorticoid stimulus; response to salt stress; response to virus; sequestering of triacylglycerol; transformed cell apoptosis; tumor necrosis factor-mediated signaling pathway
Disease: Asthma, Susceptibility To; Malaria, Susceptibility To; Migraine With Or Without Aura, Susceptibility To, 1
Reference #:  P01375 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: APC1 protein; Cachectin; DIF; TNF; TNF superfamily, member 2; TNF, macrophage-derived; TNF, monocyte-derived; TNF-a; TNF-alpha; TNFA; TNFSF2; Tumor necrosis factor; tumor necrosis factor (TNF superfamily, member 2); tumor necrosis factor alpha; Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 2; Tumor necrosis factor, membrane form; Tumor necrosis factor, soluble form
Gene Symbols: TNF
Molecular weight: 25,644 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 6.44  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
CST Pathways:  Death Receptor Signaling  |  Inhibition of Apoptosis  |  Insulin Receptor Signaling
Protein-Specific Antibodies or siRNAs from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
Select Structure to View Below

TNF-a

Protein Structure Not Found.


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Modification Sites and Domains  

Modification Sites in Parent Protein, Orthologs, and Isoforms  
 

Show Multiple Sequence Alignment


 LTP 

LTP: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.


 HTP 

HTP: The number of records in which this modification site was assigned using ONLY proteomic discovery-mode mass spectrometry.


       human

 
0 1 S2 ______MSTESMIRD
0 2 T3 _____MSTESMIRDV
0 2 S5 ___MSTESMIRDVEL
0 1 S162‑p TISRIAVsYQTKVNL
0 1 S171‑p QTKVNLLsAIKSPCQ
  mouse

 
S2‑p ______MstEsMIRD
T3‑p _____MstEsMIRDV
S5‑p ___MstEsMIRDVEL
S164 TVSRFAISYQEKVNL
S173 QEKVNLLSAVKSPCP
  rat

 
S2 ______MSTESMIRD
T3 _____MSTESMIRDV
S5 ___MSTESMIRDVEL
S164 TVSRFAISYQEKVSL
S173 QEKVSLLSAIKSPCP
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