Cytoplasmic dynein 1 acts as a motor for the intracellular retrograde motility of vesicles and organelles along microtubules. Dynein has ATPase activity; the force-producing power stroke is thought to occur on release of ADP. Defects in DYNC1H1 are the cause of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2O (CMT2O). CMT2O is anaxonal form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, a disorder of the peripheral nervous system, characterized by progressive weakness and atrophy, initially of the peroneal muscles and later of the distal muscles of the arms. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is classified in two main groups on the basis of electrophysiologic properties and histopathology: primary peripheral demyelinating neuropathies (designated CMT1 when they are dominantly inherited) and primary peripheral axonal neuropathies (CMT2). Neuropathies of the CMT2 group are characterized by signs of axonal degeneration in the absence of obvious myelin alterations, normal or slightly reduced nerve conduction velocities, and progressive distal muscle weakness and atrophy. Nerve conduction velocities are normal or slightly reduced. Defects in DYNC1H1 are the cause of mental retardation autosomal dominant type 13 (MRD13). A disorder characterized by significantly below average general intellectual functioning associated with impairments in adaptative behavior and manifested during the developmental period. MRD13 is associated with variable neuronal migration defects and mild dysmorphic features. Some patients may also show signs of peripheral neuropathy, such as abnormal gait and hyporeflexia. Defects in DYNC1H1 are the cause of spinal muscular atrophy, lower extremity, autosomal dominant (SMALED). A form of spinal muscular atrophy, a neuromuscular disorder characterized by degeneration of the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord, leading to symmetrical muscle weakness and atrophy. SMALED is characterized by muscle weakness predominantly affecting the proximal lower extremities. Belongs to the dynein heavy chain family. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Microtubule-binding; Motility/polarity/chemotaxis; Motor
Biological Process: antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II; cytoplasmic mRNA processing body assembly; ER to Golgi vesicle-mediated transport; establishment of spindle localization; G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle; stress granule assembly