C3 plays a central role in the activation of the complement system. Its processing by C3 convertase is the central reaction in both classical and alternative complement pathways. After activation C3b can bind covalently, via its reactive thioester, to cell surface carbohydrates or immune aggregates. Defects in C3 are the cause of complement component 3 deficiency (C3D). A rare defect of the complement classical pathway. Patients develop recurrent, severe, pyogenic infections because of ineffective opsonization of pathogens. Some patients may also develop autoimmune disorders, such as arthralgia and vasculitic rashes, lupus-like syndrome and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Genetic variation in C3 is associated with susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration type 9 (ARMD9). ARMD is a multifactorial eye disease and the most common cause of irreversible vision loss in the developed world. In most patients, the disease is manifest as ophthalmoscopically visible yellowish accumulations of protein and lipid that lie beneath the retinal pigment epithelium and within an elastin- containing structure known as Bruch membrane. Defects in C3 are a cause of susceptibility to hemolytic uremic syndrome atypical type 5 (AHUS5). An atypical form of hemolytic uremic syndrome. It is a complex genetic disease characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, renal failure and absence of episodes of enterocolitis and diarrhea. In contrast to typical hemolytic uremic syndrome, atypical forms have a poorer prognosis, with higher death rates and frequent progression to end-stage renal disease. Susceptibility to the development of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome can be conferred by mutations in various components of or regulatory factors in the complement cascade system. Other genes may play a role in modifying the phenotype. Increased levels of C3 and its cleavage product ASP, are associated with obesity, diabetes and coronary heart disease. Short-term endurance training reduces baseline ASP levels and subsequently fat storage. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Inhibitor; Secreted; Secreted, signal peptide
Biological Process: blood coagulation; complement activation; positive regulation of activation of membrane attack complex; positive regulation of angiogenesis; positive regulation of developmental growth; positive regulation of G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway; positive regulation of phagocytosis; positive regulation of protein amino acid phosphorylation; positive regulation of type IIa hypersensitivity