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Protein Page:
GAPDH (human)

Overview
GAPDH a multifunctional enzyme with both glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and nitrosylase activities. A key glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the pathway by converting D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) into 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate. An important enzyme for energy metabolism, and the production of ATP and pyruvate through anaerobic glycolysis in the cytoplasm. Additionally, it participates in apoptosis, membrane trafficking, iron metabolism, nuclear activities and receptor mediated cell signaling. Its subcellular localization changes reflecting its multiple activities. Is cytosolic, but is also localized in the membrane, the nucleus, polysomes, the ER and the Golgi. Participates in transcription, RNA transport, DNA replication and apoptosis. S-nitrosylation on Cys-152 following apoptotic stimulates its interaction with SIAH2, which in turn moderates its translocation into the nucleus. Mediates cysteine S-nitrosylation of nuclear target proteins including SIRT1, HDAC2 and DNA-PK. Deregulated in lung cancer, renal cancer, breast cancer, gastric cancer, glioma, liver cancer, colorectal cancer, melanoma, prostatic cancer, pancreatic cancer and bladder cancer. Its increased expression and enzymatic activity is associated with cell proliferation and tumorigenesis, Oxidative stress impairs GAPDH catalytic activity and leads to cellular aging and apoptosis. In experimental animal models, injection of GAPDH antagonists induces apoptosis and blocks Hep3B tumor progression, suggesting a therapeutic potential of targeting GAPDH in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
Protein type: Carbohydrate Metabolism - glycolysis and gluconeogenesis; EC 1.2.1.12; Oxidoreductase
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 12p13
Cellular Component: cytoplasm; cytosol; extracellular matrix; intracellular membrane-bound organelle; lipid particle; membrane; microtubule cytoskeleton; nuclear membrane; nucleus; plasma membrane; ribonucleoprotein complex; vesicle
Molecular Function: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (phosphorylating) activity; identical protein binding; microtubule binding; protein binding
Biological Process: gluconeogenesis; microtubule cytoskeleton organization and biogenesis; negative regulation of translation; neuron apoptosis; protein stabilization; regulation of macroautophagy
Reference #:  P04406 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: aging-associated gene 9 protein; G3P; G3PD; GAPD; GAPDH; glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; MGC88685
Gene Symbols: GAPDH
Molecular weight: 36,053 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 8.57  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
Protein-Specific Antibodies or siRNAs from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
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GAPDH

Protein Structure Not Found.
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