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Protein Page:
HLA-DQA1 iso2 (human)

Overview
HLA-DQA1 iso2 Binds peptides derived from antigens that access the endocytic route of antigen presenting cells (APC) and presents them on the cell surface for recognition by the CD4 T-cells. The peptide binding cleft accommodates peptides of 10-30 residues. The peptides presented by MHC class II molecules are generated mostly by degradation of proteins that access the endocytic route, where they are processed by lysosomal proteases and other hydrolases. Exogenous antigens that have been endocytosed by the APC are thus readily available for presentation via MHC II molecules, and for this reason this antigen presentation pathway is usually referred to as exogenous. As membrane proteins on their way to degradation in lysosomes as part of their normal turn-over are also contained in the endosomal/lysosomal compartments, exogenous antigens must compete with those derived from endogenous components. Autophagy is also a source of endogenous peptides, autophagosomes constitutively fuse with MHC class II loading compartments. In addition to APCs, other cells of the gastrointestinal tract, such as epithelial cells, express MHC class II molecules and CD74 and act as APCs, which is an unusual trait of the GI tract. To produce a MHC class II molecule that presents an antigen, three MHC class II molecules (heterodimers of an alpha and a beta chain) associate with a CD74 trimer in the ER to form a heterononamer. Soon after the entry of this complex into the endosomal/lysosomal system where antigen processing occurs, CD74 undergoes a sequential degradation by various proteases, including CTSS and CTSL, leaving a small fragment termed CLIP (class-II-associated invariant chain peptide). The removal of CLIP is facilitated by HLA-DM via direct binding to the alpha-beta-CLIP complex so that CLIP is released. HLA-DM stabilizes MHC class II molecules until primary high affinity antigenic peptides are bound. The MHC II molecule bound to a peptide is then transported to the cell membrane surface. In B-cells, the interaction between HLA-DM and MHC class II molecules is regulated by HLA-DO. Primary dendritic cells (DCs) also to express HLA-DO. Lysosomal microenvironment has been implicated in the regulation of antigen loading into MHC II molecules, increased acidification produces increased proteolysis and efficient peptide loading. Belongs to the MHC class II family. {ECO:0000305}. Heterodimer of an alpha and a beta subunit; also referred as MHC class II molecule. In the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) it forms a heterononamer; 3 MHC class II molecules bind to a CD74 homotrimer (also known as invariant chain or HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain). In the endosomal/lysosomal system; CD74 undergoes sequential degradation by various proteases; leaving a small fragment termed CLIP on each MHC class II molecule. MHC class II molecule interacts with HLA_DM, and HLA_DO in B-cells, in order to release CLIP and facilitate the binding of antigenic peptides. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11376336, ECO:0000269|PubMed:14769912, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15020763, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17629515}.
Protein type: Cell surface; Membrane protein, integral
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 6p21.3
Cellular Component: Golgi membrane; lysosomal membrane; membrane; MHC class II protein complex; plasma membrane; trans-Golgi network membrane
Molecular Function: MHC class II receptor activity; peptide antigen binding
Biological Process: antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II; T cell costimulation; T cell receptor signaling pathway
Disease: Celiac Disease
Reference #:  Q9TQ69 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: CD; CELIAC1; DC-1 alpha chain; DC-alpha; DQ-A1; FLJ27088; FLJ27328; GSE; HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ alpha 1 chain; HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ(W3) alpha chain; HLA-DCA; HLA-DQA; HLA-DQA1; leucocyte antigen DQA1; leukocyte antigen alpha chain; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ alpha 1; MGC149527; MHC class II antigen; MHC class II HLA-D alpha glycoprotein; MHC class II HLA-DQ-alpha-1; MHC class II surface glycoprotein; MHC HLA-DQ alpha
Gene Symbols: HLA-DQA1
Molecular weight: 9,094 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 5.56  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
Select Structure to View Below

HLA-DQA1 iso2

Protein Structure Not Found.


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