a transcription factor of the nuclear factor-kappaB ( NFkB) group. Undergoes cotranslational processing by the 26S proteasome to produce a 50 kD protein. The 105 kD protein is a Rel protein-specific transcription inhibitor and the 50 kD protein is a DNA binding subunit of NFkB. NFkB is a transcription regulator that is activated by various intra- and extra-cellular stimuli such as cytokines, oxidant-free radicals, ultraviolet irradiation, and bacterial or viral products. Activated NFkB translocates into the nucleus and stimulates the expression of genes involved in a wide variety of biological functions. Inappropriate activation of NFkB has been associated with a number of inflammatory diseases while persistent inhibition of NFkB leads to inappropriate immune cell development or delayed cell growth. There are five NFkB proteins in mammals (RelA/NFkB-p65, RelB, c-Rel, NF-_B1/NFkB-p105, and NF-_B2/NFkB-p100). They form a variety of homodimers and heterodimers, each of which activates its own characteristic set of genes. Two alternatively spliced isoforms have been described. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Molecular Function: actinin binding; chromatin binding; identical protein binding; protein binding; protein heterodimerization activity; transcription factor activity; transcription factor binding
Biological Process: activation of NF-kappaB transcription factor; I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB cascade; inflammatory response; innate immune response; membrane protein intracellular domain proteolysis; negative regulation of apoptosis; negative regulation of cellular protein metabolic process; negative regulation of cholesterol transport; negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; positive regulation of interferon type I production; positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; positive regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent; stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway; stress-activated MAPK cascade; T cell receptor signaling pathway; transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter
LTP: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.