a pleiotropic membrane protein that suppresses cell proliferation, apoptosis and senescence. It plays a role both in maintaining mitochondrial integrity and in cell cycle regulation. Expression increases approximately 3-fold upon entry into G1 phase compared with other phases of the cell cycle. It helps prevent ROS-induced senescence and its expression decreases heterogeneously during cellular aging. Helps maintain the angiogenic capacity of endothelial cells. Up-regulated during activation of primary human T cells via CD3/CD28 pathways. Present in multiple cellular compartments. Large assemblies of PHB and PHB2 localize in the inner membrane of mitochondria. Acts as a mitochondrial chaperone protein, regulates mitochondrial morphogenesis, and helps regulate the organization of mitochondrial DNA. Reported to target lipid rafts. In the nucleus, it has been reported to interact with various transcription factors, modulating their activity. A potential tumor suppressor that functions as a potent transcriptional corepressor for estrogen receptor alpha. It is downregulated by androgens, and represses androgen receptor activity. Co-localizes with Rb in the nucleus and recruits N-CoR and HDAC1 for transcriptional repression. In vivo promoter occupancy studies have suggested that the PHB gene is a direct target of c-Myc. May bind to and enhance the transcriptional activity of p53. Both Phb and Phb2 are present in the circulation and can be internalized by cultured cells. Overexpressed in endometrioid ovarian adenocarcinoma and papillary serous ovarian carcinoma. Mutated in sporadic breast cancer. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Biological Process: mitochondrion organization and biogenesis; progesterone receptor signaling pathway; protein stabilization; positive regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent; histone deacetylation; negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; signal transduction; regulation of apoptosis; osteoblast differentiation; negative regulation of cell proliferation; regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent; positive regulation of complement activation; positive regulation of G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway; negative regulation of cell growth; negative regulation of protein catabolic process; negative regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent
LTP: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.