Multifunctional protein that controls proliferation, differentiation and other functions in many cell types. Many cells synthesize TGFB1 and have specific receptors for it. It positively and negatively regulates many other growth factors. It plays an important role in bone remodeling as it is a potent stimulator of osteoblastic bone formation, causing chemotaxis, proliferation and differentiation in committed osteoblasts. Homodimer; disulfide-linked, or heterodimer with TGFB2. Secreted and stored as a biologically inactive form in the extracellular matrix in a 290 kDa complex (large latent TGF-beta1 complex) containing the TGFB1 homodimer, the latency-associated peptide (LAP), and the latent TGFB1 binding protein-1 (LTBP1). The complex without LTBP1 is known as the'small latent TGF-beta1 complex'. Dissociation of the TGFB1 from LAP is required for growth factor activation and biological activity. Release of the large latent TGF-beta1 complex from the extracellular matrix is carried out by the matrix metalloproteinase MMP3. May interact with THSD4; this interaction may lead to sequestration by FBN1 microfibril assembly and attenuation of TGFB signaling. Interacts with the serine proteases, HTRA1 and HTRA3: the interaction with either inhibits TGFB1-mediated signaling. The HTRA protease activity is required for this inhibition. Interacts with CD109, DPT and ASPN. Activated in vitro at pH below 3.5 and over 12.5. Highly expressed in bone. Abundantly expressed in articular cartilage and chondrocytes and is increased in osteoarthritis (OA). Co-localizes with ASPN in chondrocytes within OA lesions of articular cartilage. Belongs to the TGF-beta family. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Motility/polarity/chemotaxis; Secreted; Secreted, signal peptide
Molecular Function: protein binding; enzyme binding; protein homodimerization activity; growth factor activity; protein heterodimerization activity; punt binding; protein N-terminus binding; transforming growth factor beta receptor binding
Biological Process: positive regulation of apoptosis; positive regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent; SMAD protein nuclear translocation; positive regulation of protein amino acid dephosphorylation; activation of NF-kappaB transcription factor; regulation of protein import into nucleus; positive regulation of MAP kinase activity; regulation of transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway; negative regulation of ossification; cell cycle arrest; positive regulation of isotype switching to IgA isotypes; T cell differentiation; regulatory T cell differentiation; positive regulation of interleukin-17 production; positive regulation of chemotaxis; positive regulation of smooth muscle cell differentiation; positive regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration; negative regulation of immune response; regulation of sodium ion transport; negative regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration; negative regulation of fat cell differentiation; lymph node development; positive regulation of protein secretion; positive regulation of cell division; positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; response to progesterone stimulus; endoderm development; myelination; positive regulation of odontogenesis; negative regulation of phagocytosis; evasion of host defenses by virus; wound healing; T cell activation; positive regulation of cellular protein metabolic process; myeloid dendritic cell differentiation; negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; phosphate metabolic process; response to organic substance; negative regulation of cell proliferation; negative regulation of T cell proliferation; mammary gland development; regulation of DNA binding; negative regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol; positive regulation of cell proliferation; protein kinase B signaling cascade; protein export from nucleus; inflammatory response; positive regulation of exit from mitosis; epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway; mitotic cell cycle checkpoint; common-partner SMAD protein phosphorylation; positive regulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase activity; positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation; SMAD protein complex assembly; regulation of cell proliferation; cell proliferation; positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling cascade; positive regulation of protein complex assembly; positive regulation of protein import into nucleus; epithelial to mesenchymal transition; negative regulation of cell-cell adhesion; negative regulation of cell growth; negative regulation of skeletal muscle development; mononuclear cell proliferation; protein amino acid phosphorylation; hyaluronan catabolic process; negative regulation of neuroblast proliferation; positive regulation of superoxide release; transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway; receptor catabolic process; germ cell migration; chondrocyte differentiation; negative regulation of mitotic cell cycle; T cell homeostasis; defense response to fungus, incompatible interaction; cell growth; tolerance induction to self antigen; regulation of striated muscle development; organ regeneration; skeletal muscle development; cell activation; organ morphogenesis; negative regulation of DNA replication; hemopoietic progenitor cell differentiation; negative regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent; positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation; cell death; positive regulation of collagen biosynthetic process; defense response; response to estradiol stimulus; negative regulation of cell cycle; positive regulation of histone deacetylation; negative regulation of protein amino acid phosphorylation; lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway; adaptive immune response based on somatic recombination of immune receptors built from immunoglobulin superfamily domains; skeletal development; negative regulation of epithelial cell proliferation; intercellular junction assembly and maintenance; regulation of binding; MAPKKK cascade; morphogenesis of a branching structure; cellular calcium ion homeostasis; protein import into nucleus, translocation; ATP biosynthetic process; positive regulation of histone acetylation; positive regulation of protein amino acid phosphorylation; negative regulation of myoblast differentiation; negative regulation of T cell activation; positive regulation of cell migration; growth
SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.