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Protein Page:
TNF-a (human)

Overview
TNF-a Cytokine that binds to TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 and TNFRSF1B/TNFBR. It is mainly secreted by macrophages and can induce cell death of certain tumor cell lines. It is potent pyrogen causing fever by direct action or by stimulation of interleukin-1 secretion and is implicated in the induction of cachexia, Under certain conditions it can stimulate cell proliferation and induce cell differentiation. Homotrimer. Interacts with SPPL2B. Belongs to the tumor necrosis factor family. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Membrane protein, integral; Apoptosis; Motility/polarity/chemotaxis; Cytokine
Cellular Component: extracellular space; recycling endosome; cell surface; integral to plasma membrane; plasma membrane; extracellular region; phagocytic cup; external side of plasma membrane; lipid raft
Molecular Function: identical protein binding; protein binding; protease binding; cytokine activity; tumor necrosis factor receptor binding
Biological Process: positive regulation of JNK activity; extracellular matrix organization and biogenesis; positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process; positive regulation of NFAT protein import into nucleus; positive regulation of osteoclast differentiation; positive regulation of apoptosis; activation of MAPK activity; positive regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent; response to glucocorticoid stimulus; positive regulation of caspase activity; positive regulation of NF-kappaB import into nucleus; osteoclast differentiation; positive regulation of translational initiation by iron; positive regulation of membrane protein ectodomain proteolysis; activation of NF-kappaB transcription factor; positive regulation of MAP kinase activity; tumor necrosis factor-mediated signaling pathway; negative regulation of interleukin-6 production; JNK cascade; negative regulation of osteoblast differentiation; amino acid biosynthetic process; regulation of immunoglobulin secretion; embryonic gut development; negative regulation of protein complex disassembly; positive regulation of cytokine production; response to drug; positive regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion; positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB cascade; positive regulation of mitosis; response to virus; positive regulation of interleukin-6 production; positive regulation of interleukin-8 biosynthetic process; glucose metabolic process; negative regulation of fat cell differentiation; positive regulation of chemokine production; negative regulation of cytokine secretion during immune response; positive regulation of protein transport; cell activation; defense response to Gram-positive bacterium; organ morphogenesis; induction of apoptosis via death domain receptors; DNA damage response, signal transduction resulting in induction of apoptosis; response to mechanical stimulus; positive regulation of transcription factor activity; positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; negative regulation of L-glutamate transport; response to activity; negative regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent; skeletal muscle contraction; sequestering of triacylglycerol; apoptosis; positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation; positive regulation of JNK cascade; negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; positive regulation of interleukin-18 production; chronic inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus; response to salt stress; positive regulation of synaptic transmission; positive regulation of hair follicle development; negative regulation of cell proliferation; negative regulation of lipid catabolic process; positive regulation of neuron apoptosis; protein kinase B signaling cascade; lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway; positive regulation of chronic inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus; inflammatory response; regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB cascade; caspase activation; positive regulation of humoral immune response mediated by circulating immunoglobulin; positive regulation of protein complex disassembly; transformed cell apoptosis; calcium-mediated signaling; MAPKKK cascade; positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation; humoral immune response; positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling cascade; negative regulation of glucose import; positive regulation of interferon-gamma production; positive regulation of programmed cell death; positive regulation of protein complex assembly; positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process; negative regulation of viral genome replication; protein import into nucleus, translocation; activation of MAPKKK activity; response to hypoxia; positive regulation of fever; receptor biosynthetic process; positive regulation of protein amino acid phosphorylation; leukocyte tethering or rolling; regulation of insulin secretion; positive regulation of cytokine secretion
Reference #:  P01375 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: APC1 protein; Cachectin; DIF; TNF; TNF superfamily, member 2; TNF, macrophage-derived; TNF, monocyte-derived; TNF-a; TNF-alpha; TNFA; TNFSF2; Tumor necrosis factor; tumor necrosis factor (TNF superfamily, member 2); tumor necrosis factor alpha; Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 2; Tumor necrosis factor, membrane form; Tumor necrosis factor, soluble form
Gene Symbols: TNF
Molecular weight: 25,644 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 6.44  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
CST Pathways:  Death Receptor Signaling  |  Inhibition of Apoptosis  |  Insulin Receptor Signaling
Protein-Specific Antibodies or siRNAs from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
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TNF-a

Protein Structure Not Found.


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Modification Sites and Domains  

Modification Sites in Parent Protein, Orthologs, and Isoforms  
 

Show Multiple Sequence Alignment


 SS 

SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.


 MS 

MS: The number of records in which this modification site was assigned using ONLY proteomic discovery-mode mass spectrometry.


       human

 
0 1 S2 ______MSTESMIRD
0 2 T3 _____MSTESMIRDV
0 2 S5 ___MSTESMIRDVEL
  mouse

 
S2-p ______MstEsMIRD
T3-p _____MstEsMIRDV
S5-p ___MstEsMIRDVEL
  rat

 
S2 ______MSTESMIRD
T3 _____MSTESMIRDV
S5 ___MSTESMIRDVEL
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