Produced by lymphocytes activated by specific antigens or mitogens. IFN-gamma, in addition to having antiviral activity, has important immunoregulatory functions. It is a potent activator of macrophages, it has antiproliferative effects on transformed cells and it can potentiate the antiviral and antitumor effects of the type I interferons. Homodimer. Released primarily from activated T lymphocytes. Belongs to the type II (or gamma) interferon family. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Cytokine; Secreted, signal peptide; Secreted; Membrane protein, integral
Cellular Component: extracellular space; cell; extracellular region; intracellular; external side of plasma membrane
Molecular Function: protein binding; interferon-gamma receptor binding; cytokine activity
Biological Process: positive regulation of isotype switching to IgG isotypes; positive regulation of cell adhesion; positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process; positive regulation of osteoclast differentiation; positive regulation of interleukin-23 production; positive regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent; negative regulation of epithelial cell differentiation; positive regulation of interleukin-1 beta secretion; positive regulation of killing of cells of another organism; positive regulation of membrane protein ectodomain proteolysis; regulation of growth; positive regulation of T cell proliferation; cell cycle arrest; defense response to virus; regulation of the force of heart contraction; positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation of STAT protein; neutrophil chemotaxis; positive regulation of synaptic transmission, cholinergic; negative regulation of myelination; CD8-positive, alpha-beta T cell differentiation during immune response; response to virus; defense response to protozoan; positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor production; inflammatory cell apoptosis; positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat1 protein; defense response to bacterium; neutrophil apoptosis; positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; apoptosis; negative regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation; positive regulation of interleukin-12 production; positive regulation of interleukin-6 biosynthetic process; negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; sensory perception of mechanical stimulus; negative regulation of cell proliferation; regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent; positive regulation of MHC class II biosynthetic process; positive regulation of cell proliferation; regulation of immune response; adaptive immune response; unfolded protein response; humoral immune response; antigen processing and presentation; negative regulation of interleukin-17 production; positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process; positive regulation of interleukin-12 biosynthetic process; protein import into nucleus, translocation; immune response; positive regulation of neuron differentiation; regulation of insulin secretion
SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.