Thiol protease that cleaves IL-1 beta between an Asp and an Ala, releasing the mature cytokine which is involved in a variety of inflammatory processes. Important for defense against pathogens. Cleaves and activates sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs). Can also promote apoptosis. Heterotetramer that consists of two anti-parallel arranged heterodimers, each one formed by a 20 kDa (p20) and a 10 kDa (p10) subunit. The p20 subunit can also form a heterodimer with the epsilon isoform which then has an inhibitory effect. May be a component of the inflammasome, a protein complex which also includes PYCARD, CARD8 and NALP2 and whose function would be the activation of proinflammatory caspases. Interacts with CARD17/INCA and CARD18. Expressed in larger amounts in spleen and lung. Detected in liver, heart, small intestine, colon, thymus, prostate, skeletal muscle, peripheral blood leukocytes, kidney and testis. No expression in the brain. Specifically inhibited by the cowpox virus Crma protein. Belongs to the peptidase C14A family. 5 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Protease; EC 18.104.22.168; Apoptosis
Cellular Component: extracellular region; cytosol
Molecular Function: protein binding; cysteine-type endopeptidase activity; caspase activator activity
Biological Process: caspase activation; positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB cascade; apoptosis; membrane hyperpolarization; interleukin-1 beta production; mitochondrial depolarization; positive regulation of interleukin-1 beta secretion; signal transduction; proteolysis; response to ATP; positive regulation of interleukin-1 alpha secretion; response to hypoxia; innate immune response; protein processing
SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.