Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RAR/RXR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. In the absence of ligand, acts mainly as an activator of gene expression due to weak binding to corepressors. Required for limb bud development. In concert with RARA or RARB, required for skeletal growth, matrix homeostasis and growth plate function. Homodimer. Heterodimer with a RXR molecule. Binds DNA preferentially as a RAR/RXR heterodimer. Forms a complex with PUS1 and the SRA1 RNA in the nucleus. Belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor family. NR1 subfamily. 2 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: DNA binding protein; Nuclear receptor
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 12q13
Cellular Component: nucleoplasm; transcription factor complex; integral to membrane; nucleolus; nucleus
Molecular Function: retinoid X receptor binding; protein binding; DNA binding; zinc ion binding; sequence-specific DNA binding; steroid hormone receptor activity; retinoic acid receptor activity; transcription factor activity
Biological Process: retinoic acid receptor signaling pathway; transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter; regulation of myelination; response to retinoic acid; embryonic eye morphogenesis; positive regulation of apoptosis; multicellular organism growth; negative regulation of chondrocyte differentiation; Wnt receptor signaling pathway through beta-catenin; negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; embryonic hindlimb morphogenesis; anterior/posterior pattern formation; negative regulation of cell proliferation; positive regulation of programmed cell death; positive regulation of cell proliferation; gene expression; positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; steroid hormone mediated signaling; regulation of cell size
SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.