Produces nitric oxide (NO) which is a messenger molecule with diverse functions throughout the body. In macrophages, NO mediates tumoricidal and bactericidal actions. Also has nitrosylase activity and mediates cysteine S-nitrosylation of cytoplasmic target proteins such COX2. Homodimer. Binds SLC9A3R1. By endotoxins and cytokines. Induced by IFNG/IFN-gamma acting synergistically with bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), TNF or IL1B/interleukin-1 beta. Expressed in the liver, retina, bone cells and airway epithelial cells of the lung. Not expressed in the platelets. Regulated by calcium/calmodulin. Aspirin inhibits expression and function of this enzyme and effects may be exerted at the level of translational/post-translational modification and directly on the catalytic activity. Belongs to the NOS family. 2 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Amino Acid Metabolism - arginine and proline; EC 18.104.22.168; Oxidoreductase
Cellular Component: cortical cytoskeleton; perinuclear region of cytoplasm; cytoplasm; peroxisome; intracellular; cytosol; nucleus
Molecular Function: calmodulin binding; protein binding; protein homodimerization activity; FAD binding; nitric-oxide synthase activity; FMN binding; NADPH-hemoprotein reductase activity; iron ion binding; heme binding; NADP binding; receptor binding
Biological Process: interaction with host; superoxide metabolic process; positive regulation of guanylate cyclase activity; positive regulation of killing of cells of another organism; positive regulation of vasodilation; defense response to Gram-negative bacterium; regulation of cell proliferation; regulation of cellular respiration; positive regulation of leukocyte mediated cytotoxicity; response to bacterium; innate immune response in mucosa; defense response to bacterium; response to hypoxia; peptidyl-cysteine S-nitrosylation; arginine catabolic process; negative regulation of blood pressure; inflammatory response; negative regulation of protein catabolic process; nitric oxide biosynthetic process; blood coagulation; regulation of insulin secretion; nitric oxide mediated signal transduction
SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.