Produces nitric oxide (NO) which is a messenger molecule with diverse functions throughout the body. In macrophages, NO mediates tumoricidal and bactericidal actions. Also has nitrosylase activity and mediates cysteine S-nitrosylation of cytoplasmic target proteins such COX2. Homodimer. Binds SLC9A3R1. By endotoxins and cytokines. Induced by IFNG/IFN-gamma acting synergistically with bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), TNF or IL1B/interleukin-1 beta. Expressed in the liver, retina, bone cells and airway epithelial cells of the lung. Not expressed in the platelets. Regulated by calcium/calmodulin. Aspirin inhibits expression and function of this enzyme and effects may be exerted at the level of translational/post-translational modification and directly on the catalytic activity. Belongs to the NOS family. 2 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Oxidoreductase; EC 22.214.171.124; Amino Acid Metabolism - arginine and proline
Cellular Component: cortical cytoskeleton; extracellular space; perinuclear region of cytoplasm; cytoplasm; peroxisome; vesicle membrane; intracellular; nucleus; cytosol
Molecular Function: protein homodimerization activity; FAD binding; nitric-oxide synthase activity; metal ion binding; cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulator activity; Hsp90 protein binding; oxidoreductase activity; protein kinase binding; calmodulin binding; protein binding; NADPH-hemoprotein reductase activity; FMN binding; iron ion binding; heme binding; NADP binding; receptor binding
Biological Process: cGMP-mediated signaling; positive regulation of apoptosis; superoxide metabolic process; protein kinase cascade; positive regulation of guanylate cyclase activity; positive regulation of killing of cells of another organism; positive regulation of vasodilation; signal transduction; ovulation from ovarian follicle; regulation of heart contraction; regulation of cell proliferation; regulation of blood pressure; defense response to bacterium; peptidyl-cysteine S-nitrosylation; response to hypoxia; arginine catabolic process; blood vessel remodeling; G-protein signaling, coupled to cGMP nucleotide second messenger; negative regulation of blood pressure; negative regulation of protein catabolic process; nitric oxide biosynthetic process; inflammatory response; nitric oxide mediated signal transduction; regulation of insulin secretion
SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.