Plasma membrane-associated small GTPase which cycles between an active GTP-bound and inactive GDP-bound state. In active state binds to a variety of effector proteins to regulate cellular responses, such as cell spreading and the formation of actin-based protusions including lamellipodia and membrane ruffles. Interacts with the GEF protein DOCK7, which promotes the exchange between GDP and GTP, and therefore activates it. Interacts with C1D. Expression down-regulated in quiescent fibroblasts and clearly induced by serum stimulation. Highest levels in brain, also detected in heart, placenta and pancreas. Belongs to the small GTPase superfamily. Rho family. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: G protein; G protein, monomeric; Motility/polarity/chemotaxis; G protein, monomeric, Rho
Cellular Component: filamentous actin; neuron projection; growth cone; cell soma; lamellipodium; perinuclear region of cytoplasm; plasma membrane; endomembrane system; cytosol
Molecular Function: GTPase activity; protein binding; GTP binding; calcium-dependent protein binding
Biological Process: regulation of small GTPase mediated signal transduction; GTP catabolic process; small GTPase mediated signal transduction; positive regulation of cell adhesion mediated by integrin; cell projection biogenesis; actin cytoskeleton organization and biogenesis; neuromuscular process controlling balance; neurite development
SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.