regulates G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) signaling by mediating both receptor desensitization and resensitization processes. Binds to GRK-phosphorylated receptor and sterically preclude its coupling to the cognate G- protein; the binding appears to require receptor determinants exposed only in the active receptor conformation. Targets many receptors for internalization by acting as endocytic adapters (CLASPs, clathrin-associated sorting proteins). Internalized arrestin-receptor complexes traffic to intracellular endosomes, where they remain uncoupled from G-proteins. Two different modes of arrestin-mediated internalization occur. Beta-arrestins function as multivalent adapter proteins that can switch the GPCR from a G-protein signaling mode that transmits short-lived signals from the plasma membrane via small molecule second messengers and ion channels to a beta-arrestin signaling mode that transmits a distinct set of signals that are initiated as the receptor internalizes and transits the intracellular compartment. Also involved in regulation of receptors other than GPCRs. Involved in Toll-like receptor and IL-1 receptor signaling through the interaction with TRAF6 which prevents TRAF6 autoubiquitination and oligomerization required for activation of NF-kappa-B and JUN. Binds phosphoinositides. Binds inositolhexakisphosphate (InsP6). Involved in IL8-mediated granule release in neutrophils. Interacts with phosphorylated ADRB2 and CHRM2. Interacts with SRC (via the SH3 domain and the protein kinase domain); the interaction is independent of the phosphorylation state of SRC C-terminus. Interacts with RAF1, CHUK, IKBKB and Nik. Interacts with DVL1 and DVL2; the interaction is enhanced by DVL phosphorylation. Interacts with IGF1R. Belongs to the arrestin family. 2 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB..
Biological Process: transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process; follicle-stimulating hormone signaling pathway; positive regulation of protein binding; activation of MAPK activity; positive regulation of receptor internalization; protein ubiquitination; negative regulation of caspase activity; protein transport; negative regulation of protein amino acid phosphorylation; phototransduction; negative regulation of interleukin-6 production; negative regulation of interleukin-8 production; DNA fragmentation during apoptosis; platelet activation; Notch signaling pathway; positive regulation of Rho protein signal transduction; positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation; G-protein coupled receptor internalization; positive regulation of protein ubiquitination; inhibition of NF-kappaB transcription factor; stress fiber formation; positive regulation of histone acetylation; negative regulation of protein ubiquitination; positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; positive regulation of protein amino acid phosphorylation; post-Golgi vesicle-mediated transport; blood coagulation; positive regulation of GTPase activity; negative regulation of apoptosis
SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.