Glucagon plays a key role in glucose metabolism and homeostasis. Regulates blood glucose by increasing gluconeogenesis and decreasing glycolysis. A counterregulatory hormone of insulin, raises plasma glucose levels in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Plays an important role in initiating and maintaining hyperglycemic conditions in diabetes. Glucagon release is stimulated by hypoglycemia and inhibited by hyperglycemia, insulin, and somatostatin. GLP-1 and GLP-2 are induced in response to nutrient ingestion. Glucagon is secreted in the A cells of the islets of Langerhans. GLP-1, GLP-2, oxyntomodulin and glicentin are secreted from enteroendocrine cells throughout the gastrointestinal tract. GLP1 and GLP2 are also secreted in selected neurons in the brain. Belongs to the glucagon family. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Secreted; Hormone; Secreted, signal peptide
Molecular Function: identical protein binding; protein binding; hormone activity; glucagon receptor binding; receptor binding
Biological Process: response to starvation; G-protein signaling, coupled to cAMP nucleotide second messenger; cell proliferation; G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway; cellular protein metabolic process; positive regulation of protein binding; positive regulation of protein kinase activity; positive regulation of cAMP biosynthetic process; energy reserve metabolic process; feeding behavior; signal transduction; regulation of insulin secretion; positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation; negative regulation of apoptosis
SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.