Plays an important role in growth control. Its major role in stimulating body growth is to stimulate the liver and other tissues to secrete IGF-1. It stimulates both the differentiation and proliferation of myoblasts. It also stimulates amino acid uptake and protein synthesis in muscle and other tissues. Defects in GH1 are a cause of growth hormone deficiency isolated type 1A (IGHD1A); also known as pituitary dwarfism I. IGHD1A is an autosomal recessive deficiency of GH which causes short stature. IGHD1A patients have an absence of GH with severe dwarfism and often develop anti-GH antibodies when given exogenous GH. Defects in GH1 are a cause of growth hormone deficiency isolated type 1B (IGHD1B); also known as dwarfism of Sindh. IGHD1B is an autosomal recessive deficiency of GH which causes short stature. IGHD1B patients have low but detectable levels of GH. Dwarfism is less severe than in IGHD1A and patients usually respond well to exogenous GH. Defects in GH1 are the cause of Kowarski syndrome (KWKS); also known as pituitary dwarfism VI. Defects in GH1 are a cause of growth hormone deficiency isolated type 2 (IGHD2). IGHD2 is an autosomal dominant deficiency of GH which causes short stature. Clinical severity is variable. Patients have a positive response and immunologic tolerance to growth hormone therapy. Belongs to the somatotropin/prolactin family. 4 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Hormone; Secreted; Secreted, signal peptide
Cellular Component: extracellular space; extracellular region
Molecular Function: protein binding; growth hormone receptor binding; growth factor activity; prolactin receptor binding; hormone activity; metal ion binding
Biological Process: positive regulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase cascade; positive regulation of insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling pathway; positive regulation of MAP kinase activity; positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation; positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat5 protein; positive regulation of receptor internalization; positive regulation of JAK-STAT cascade; positive regulation of multicellular organism growth; glucose transport; JAK-STAT cascade; response to estradiol stimulus; positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat3 protein
SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.