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Protein Page:
GAPDH (human)
p Phosphorylation
ac Acetylation
me Methylation
m1 Mono-methylation
m2 Di-methylation
m3 Tri-methylation
ub Ubiquitination
sm Sumoylation
ne Neddylation
gl O-GlcNAc
ga O-GalNAc
pa Palmitoylation
ad Adenylylation
sn S-Nitrosylation
ca Caspase cleavage
sc Succinylation

Overview
GAPDH a multifunctional enzyme with both glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and nitrosylase activities. A key glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the pathway by converting D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) into 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate. An important enzyme for energy metabolism, and the production of ATP and pyruvate through anaerobic glycolysis in the cytoplasm. Additionally, it participates in apoptosis, membrane trafficking, iron metabolism, nuclear activities and receptor mediated cell signaling. Its subcellular localization changes reflecting its multiple activities. Is cytosolic, but is also localized in the membrane, the nucleus, polysomes, the ER and the Golgi. Participates in transcription, RNA transport, DNA replication and apoptosis. S-nitrosylation on Cys-152 following apoptotic stimulates its interaction with SIAH2, which in turn moderates its translocation into the nucleus. Mediates cysteine S-nitrosylation of nuclear target proteins including SIRT1, HDAC2 and DNA-PK. Deregulated in lung cancer, renal cancer, breast cancer, gastric cancer, glioma, liver cancer, colorectal cancer, melanoma, prostatic cancer, pancreatic cancer and bladder cancer. Its increased expression and enzymatic activity is associated with cell proliferation and tumorigenesis, Oxidative stress impairs GAPDH catalytic activity and leads to cellular aging and apoptosis. In experimental animal models, injection of GAPDH antagonists induces apoptosis and blocks Hep3B tumor progression, suggesting a therapeutic potential of targeting GAPDH in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
Protein type: EC 1.2.1.12; Oxidoreductase; EC 2.6.99.-; Carbohydrate Metabolism - glycolysis and gluconeogenesis
Cellular Component: microtubule cytoskeleton; membrane; perinuclear region of cytoplasm; cytoplasm; plasma membrane; lipid particle; nucleus; ribonucleoprotein complex; cytosol
Molecular Function: identical protein binding; protein binding; microtubule binding; glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (phosphorylating) activity; NADP binding; NAD binding
Biological Process: neuron apoptosis; glycolysis; protein stabilization; negative regulation of translation; carbohydrate metabolic process; glucose metabolic process; microtubule cytoskeleton organization and biogenesis; gluconeogenesis
Reference #:  P04406 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: aging-associated gene 9 protein; G3P; G3PD; GAPD; GAPDH; glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; MGC88685
Gene Symbols: GAPDH
Molecular weight: 36,053 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 8.57  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
Protein-Specific Antibodies or siRNAs from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
Select Structure to View Below

GAPDH

Protein Structure Not Found.


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Sites Implicated In
apoptosis, inhibited: T237‑p
intracellular localization: Y42‑p, K117‑ac, K227‑ac, T237‑p, K251‑ac

Modification Sites and Domains Show Modification Legend
Click here to view phosphorylation modifications only

Modification Sites in Parent Protein, Orthologs, and Isoforms Show Modification Legend
 

Show Multiple Sequence Alignment


 SS 

SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.


 MS 

MS: The number of records in which this modification site was assigned using ONLY proteomic discovery-mode mass spectrometry.


       human

 
0 16 K5-ub ___MGKVkVGVNGFG
0 1 K5-sc ___MGKVkVGVNGFG
0 1 S25-p VTRAAFNsGkVDIVA
0 4 K27-ub RAAFNsGkVDIVAIN
1 5 Y42-p DPFIDLNyMVyMFQy
0 3 Y45-p IDLNyMVyMFQyDst
0 36 Y49-p yMVyMFQyDstHGkF
0 1 S51-p VyMFQyDstHGkFHG
0 1 T52-p yMFQyDstHGkFHGt
0 1 K55-ac QyDstHGkFHGtVkA
0 2 T59-p tHGkFHGtVkAENGk
0 7 K61-ac GkFHGtVkAENGkLV
0 101 K61-ub GkFHGtVkAENGkLV
0 1 K61 GkFHGtVKAENGkLV
0 3 K66-ac tVkAENGkLVINGNP
0 2 K66-ub tVkAENGkLVINGNP
0 1 K66-sc tVkAENGkLVINGNP
0 2 N72 GkLVINGNPItIFQE
0 6 N72 GkLVINGNPItIFQE
0 7 T75-p VINGNPItIFQERDP
0 72 S83-p IFQERDPskIkWGDA
0 1 K84-ac FQERDPskIkWGDAG
0 16 K84-ub FQERDPskIkWGDAG
0 1 K86-ac ERDPskIkWGDAGAE
0 18 K86-ub ERDPskIkWGDAGAE
0 1 Y94-p WGDAGAEyVVEStGV
0 1 T99-p AEyVVEStGVFttME
0 1 T103-p VEStGVFttMEkAGA
0 3 T104-p EStGVFttMEkAGAH
0 4 K107-ac GVFttMEkAGAHLQG
0 17 K107-ub GVFttMEkAGAHLQG
0 4 Q113 EkAGAHLQGGAkRVI
0 1 Q113 EkAGAHLQGGAkRVI
1 113 K117-ac AHLQGGAkRVIIsAP
0 29 K117-ub AHLQGGAkRVIIsAP
0 1 K117-sc AHLQGGAkRVIIsAP
0 1 S122-p GAkRVIIsAPsADAP
0 1 S125-p RVIIsAPsADAPMFV
0 7 K139-ac VMGVNHEkyDNsLkI
0 2 K139-ub VMGVNHEkyDNsLkI
0 1 K139-sc VMGVNHEkyDNsLkI
0 2 Y140-p MGVNHEkyDNsLkII
0 2 S143-p NHEkyDNsLkIIsNA
0 33 K145-ub EkyDNsLkIIsNAsC
0 2 K145-ac EkyDNsLkIIsNAsC
0 4 S148-p DNsLkIIsNAsCttN
0 8 S151-p LkIIsNAsCttNCLA
0 8 T153-p IIsNAsCttNCLAPL
0 6 T154-p IsNAsCttNCLAPLA
0 1 K162-ac NCLAPLAkVIHDNFG
0 11 K162-ub NCLAPLAkVIHDNFG
0 6 T176-p GIVEGLMttVHAItA
0 4 T177-p IVEGLMttVHAItAt
0 19 T182-p MttVHAItAtQktVD
0 86 T184-p tVHAItAtQktVDGP
0 2 K186-ac HAItAtQktVDGPsG
0 49 K186-ub HAItAtQktVDGPsG
0 4 T187-p AItAtQktVDGPsGk
0 3 S192-p QktVDGPsGkLWRDG
0 57 K194-ac tVDGPsGkLWRDGRG
0 70 K194-ub tVDGPsGkLWRDGRG
0 1 K194-sc tVDGPsGkLWRDGRG
0 7 S210-p LQNIIPAstGAAkAV
0 9 T211-p QNIIPAstGAAkAVG
0 4 K215-ac PAstGAAkAVGkVIP
0 95 K215-ub PAstGAAkAVGkVIP
0 1 K215-sc PAstGAAkAVGkVIP
0 4 K219-ac GAAkAVGkVIPELNG
0 29 K219-ub GAAkAVGkVIPELNG
0 1 K219-sc GAAkAVGkVIPELNG
1 8 K227-ac VIPELNGkLtGMAFR
0 7 K227-ub VIPELNGkLtGMAFR
0 1 K227-sc VIPELNGkLtGMAFR
1 0 T229 PELNGkLTGMAFRVP
0 2 T229-p PELNGkLtGMAFRVP
1 29 T237-p GMAFRVPtANVsVVD
1 9 S241-p RVPtANVsVVDLtCR
1 2 T246-p NVsVVDLtCRLEkPA
1 0 K251-ac DLtCRLEkPAkyDDI
0 13 K251-ub DLtCRLEkPAkyDDI
1 9 K254-ac CRLEkPAkyDDIkkV
0 26 K254-ub CRLEkPAkyDDIkkV
0 1 K254-sc CRLEkPAkyDDIkkV
0 46 Y255-p RLEkPAkyDDIkkVV
0 189 K259-ac PAkyDDIkkVVkQAs
0 69 K259-ub PAkyDDIkkVVkQAs
0 12 K260-ac AkyDDIkkVVkQAsE
0 43 K260-ub AkyDDIkkVVkQAsE
0 1 K263 DDIkkVVKQAsEGPL
0 119 K263-ub DDIkkVVkQAsEGPL
0 1 K263-sc DDIkkVVkQAsEGPL
0 3 S266-p kkVVkQAsEGPLkGI
0 1 K271-ub QAsEGPLkGILGyTE
0 6 Y276-p PLkGILGyTEHQVVS
0 1 S284-p TEHQVVSsDFNSDTH
0 1 S312-p DHFVKLIsWyDNEFG
0 35 Y314-p FVKLIsWyDNEFGyS
0 122 F318 IsWyDNEFGySNRVV
0 29 Y320-p WyDNEFGySNRVVDL
0 113 H330 RVVDLMAHMAskE__
0 4 S333-p DLMAHMAskE_____
0 70 K334-ac LMAHMAskE______
0 2 K334-ub LMAHMAskE______
0 1 K334-sc LMAHMAskE______
  mouse

 
K3-ub _____MVkVGVNGFG
K3-sc _____MVkVGVNGFG
S23 VTRAAICSGkVEIVA
K25-ub RAAICSGkVEIVAIN
Y40-p DPFIDLNyMVYMFQY
Y43 IDLNyMVYMFQYDST
Y47 yMVYMFQYDSTHGKF
S49 VYMFQYDSTHGKFNG
T50 YMFQYDSTHGKFNGt
K53 QYDSTHGKFNGtVkA
T57-p THGKFNGtVkAENGk
K59-ac GKFNGtVkAENGkLV
K59-ub GKFNGtVkAENGkLV
K59-sc GKFNGtVkAENGkLV
K64 tVkAENGKLVINGkP
K64-ub tVkAENGkLVINGkP
K64-sc tVkAENGkLVINGkP
K70-ac GkLVINGkPItIFQE
K70-ub GkLVINGkPItIFQE
T73-p VINGkPItIFQERDP
T81-p IFQERDPtNIkWGEA
N82 FQERDPtNIkWGEAG
N82 FQERDPtNIkWGEAG
K84-ac ERDPtNIkWGEAGAE
K84-ub ERDPtNIkWGEAGAE
Y92 WGEAGAEYVVESTGV
T97 AEYVVESTGVFTtME
T101 VESTGVFTtMEkAGA
T102-p ESTGVFTtMEkAGAH
K105-ac GVFTtMEkAGAHLkG
K105-ub GVFTtMEkAGAHLkG
K111-ub EkAGAHLkGGAKRVI
K111-ac EkAGAHLkGGAKRVI
K115 AHLkGGAKRVIISAP
K115 AHLkGGAKRVIISAP
K115 AHLkGGAKRVIISAP
S120 GAKRVIISAPSADAP
S123 RVIISAPSADAPMFV
K137-ac VMGVNHEkYDNSLkI
K137-ub VMGVNHEkYDNSLkI
K137 VMGVNHEKYDNSLkI
Y138 MGVNHEkYDNSLkIV
S141 NHEkYDNSLkIVsNA
K143-ub EkYDNSLkIVsNAsC
K143-ac EkYDNSLkIVsNAsC
S146-p DNSLkIVsNAsCttN
S149-p LkIVsNAsCttNCLA
T151-p IVsNAsCttNCLAPL
T152-p VsNAsCttNCLAPLA
K160 NCLAPLAKVIHDNFG
K160-ub NCLAPLAkVIHDNFG
T174 GIVEGLMTtVHAItA
T175-p IVEGLMTtVHAItAt
T180-p MTtVHAItAtQktVD
T182-p tVHAItAtQktVDGP
K184-ac HAItAtQktVDGPsG
K184-ub HAItAtQktVDGPsG
T185-p AItAtQktVDGPsGk
S190-p QktVDGPsGkLWRDG
K192-ac tVDGPsGkLWRDGRG
K192-ub tVDGPsGkLWRDGRG
K192-sc tVDGPsGkLWRDGRG
S208-p AQNIIPAstGAAkAV
T209-p QNIIPAstGAAkAVG
K213-ac PAstGAAkAVGkVIP
K213-ub PAstGAAkAVGkVIP
K213-sc PAstGAAkAVGkVIP
K217-ac GAAkAVGkVIPELNG
K217-ub GAAkAVGkVIPELNG
K217-sc GAAkAVGkVIPELNG
K225-ac VIPELNGkLTGMAFR
K225-ub VIPELNGkLTGMAFR
K225 VIPELNGKLTGMAFR
T227 PELNGkLTGMAFRVP
T227 PELNGkLTGMAFRVP
T235-p GMAFRVPtPNVsVVD
S239-p RVPtPNVsVVDLTCR
T244 NVsVVDLTCRLEkPA
K249 DLTCRLEKPAkyDDI
K249-ub DLTCRLEkPAkyDDI
K252-ac CRLEkPAkyDDIkkV
K252-ub CRLEkPAkyDDIkkV
K252-sc CRLEkPAkyDDIkkV
Y253-p RLEkPAkyDDIkkVV
K257-ac PAkyDDIkkVVkQAs
K257-ub PAkyDDIkkVVkQAs
K258 AkyDDIkKVVkQAsE
K258-ub AkyDDIkkVVkQAsE
K261-ac DDIkkVVkQAsEGPL
K261-ub DDIkkVVkQAsEGPL
K261 DDIkkVVKQAsEGPL
S264-p kkVVkQAsEGPLKGI
K269 QAsEGPLKGILGYTE
Y274 PLKGILGYTEDQVVS
C282 TEDQVVSCDFNSNSH
S310 DNFVKLISWyDNEyG
Y312-p FVKLISWyDNEyGyS
Y316-p ISWyDNEyGySNRVV
Y318-p WyDNEyGySNRVVDL
Y328-p RVVDLMAyMASkE__
S331 DLMAyMASkE_____
K332-ac LMAyMASkE______
K332-ub LMAyMASkE______
K332-sc LMAyMASkE______
  rat

 
K3 _____MVKVGVNGFG
- under review  
C23 VTRAAFSCDKVDIVA
K25 RAAFSCDKVDIVAIN
Y40 DPFIDLNYMVYMFQY
Y43 IDLNYMVYMFQYDST
Y47 YMVYMFQYDSTHGkF
S49 VYMFQYDSTHGkFNG
T50 YMFQYDSTHGkFNGT
K53-ac QYDSTHGkFNGTVkA
T57 THGkFNGTVkAENGk
K59-ac GkFNGTVkAENGkLV
K59 GkFNGTVKAENGkLV
K59 GkFNGTVKAENGkLV
K64-ac TVkAENGkLVINGkP
K64 TVkAENGKLVINGkP
K64 TVkAENGKLVINGkP
K70-ac GkLVINGkPItIFQE
K70-ub GkLVINGkPItIFQE
T73-p VINGkPItIFQERDP
A81 IFQERDPANIKWGDA
N82 FQERDPANIKWGDAG
N82 FQERDPANIKWGDAG
K84 ERDPANIKWGDAGAE
K84 ERDPANIKWGDAGAE
Y92 WGDAGAEYVVESTGV
T97 AEYVVESTGVFTTME
T101 VESTGVFTTMEkAGA
T102 ESTGVFTTMEkAGAH
K105-ac GVFTTMEkAGAHLKG
K105 GVFTTMEKAGAHLKG
K111 EkAGAHLKGGAKRVI
K111 EkAGAHLKGGAKRVI
K115 AHLKGGAKRVIISAP
K115 AHLKGGAKRVIISAP
K115 AHLKGGAKRVIISAP
S120 GAKRVIISAPSADAP
S123 RVIISAPSADAPMFV
K137-ac VMGVNHEkYDNSLKI
K137 VMGVNHEKYDNSLKI
K137 VMGVNHEKYDNSLKI
Y138 MGVNHEkYDNSLKIV
S141 NHEkYDNSLKIVSNA
K143 EkYDNSLKIVSNAsC
K143 EkYDNSLKIVSNAsC
S146 DNSLKIVSNAsCtTN
S149-p LKIVSNAsCtTNCLA
T151-p IVSNAsCtTNCLAPL
T152 VSNAsCtTNCLAPLA
K160 NCLAPLAKVIHDNFG
K160 NCLAPLAKVIHDNFG
T174-p GIVEGLMttVHAItA
T175-p IVEGLMttVHAItAt
T180-p MttVHAItAtQkTVD
T182-p tVHAItAtQkTVDGP
K184-ac HAItAtQkTVDGPSG
K184-ub HAItAtQkTVDGPSG
T185 AItAtQkTVDGPSGk
S190 QkTVDGPSGkLWRDG
K192-ac TVDGPSGkLWRDGRG
K192-ub TVDGPSGkLWRDGRG
K192 TVDGPSGKLWRDGRG
S208-p AQNIIPAstGAAkAV
T209-p QNIIPAstGAAkAVG
K213-ac PAstGAAkAVGkVIP
K213-ub PAstGAAkAVGkVIP
K213 PAstGAAKAVGkVIP
K217-ac GAAkAVGkVIPELNG
K217-ub GAAkAVGkVIPELNG
K217 GAAkAVGKVIPELNG
K225-ac VIPELNGkLtGMAFR
K225 VIPELNGKLtGMAFR
K225 VIPELNGKLtGMAFR
T227-gl PELNGkLtGMAFRVP
T227 PELNGkLTGMAFRVP
T235 GMAFRVPTPNVSVVD
S239 RVPTPNVSVVDLTCR
T244 NVSVVDLTCRLEkPA
K249-ac DLTCRLEkPAkyDDI
K249-ub DLTCRLEkPAkyDDI
K252-ac CRLEkPAkyDDIkkV
K252-ub CRLEkPAkyDDIkkV
K252 CRLEkPAKyDDIkkV
Y253-p RLEkPAkyDDIkkVV
K257-ac PAkyDDIkkVVkQAA
K257-ub PAkyDDIkkVVkQAA
K258-ac AkyDDIkkVVkQAAE
K258-ub AkyDDIkkVVkQAAE
K261-ac DDIkkVVkQAAEGPL
K261-ub DDIkkVVkQAAEGPL
K261 DDIkkVVKQAAEGPL
A264 kkVVkQAAEGPLKGI
K269 QAAEGPLKGILGYTE
Y274 PLKGILGYTEDQVVS
C282 TEDQVVSCDFNSNSH
S310 DNFVKLISWYDNEyG
Y312 FVKLISWYDNEyGyS
Y316-p ISWYDNEyGySNRVV
Y318-p WYDNEyGySNRVVDL
Y328-p RVVDLMAyMAskE__
S331-p DLMAyMAskE_____
K332-ac LMAyMAskE______
K332 LMAyMAsKE______
K332 LMAyMAsKE______
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