Cytokine that binds to TNFRSF11B/OPG and to TNFRSF11A/RANK. Osteoclast differentiation and activation factor. Augments the ability of dendritic cells to stimulate naive T-cell proliferation. May be an important regulator of interactions between T-cells and dendritic cells and may play a role in the regulation of the T-cell-dependent immune response. May also play an important role in enhanced bone-resorption in humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy. Homotrimer. Up-regulated by T-cell receptor stimulation. Highest in the peripheral lymph nodes, weak in spleen, peripheral blood Leukocytes, bone marrow, heart, placenta, skeletal muscle, stomach and thyroid. Belongs to the tumor necrosis factor family. 3 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Membrane protein, integral
Cellular Component: extracellular space; integral to plasma membrane; cytoplasm; extracellular region
Biological Process: ossification; positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB cascade; positive regulation of osteoclast differentiation; cytokine and chemokine mediated signaling pathway; positive regulation of JNK cascade; mammary gland epithelial cell proliferation; osteoclast differentiation; activation of JNK activity; positive regulation of homotypic cell-cell adhesion; positive regulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone secretion; activation of NF-kappaB transcription factor; calcium ion homeostasis; positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling cascade; monocyte chemotaxis; positive regulation of MAP kinase activity; organ morphogenesis; tumor necrosis factor-mediated signaling pathway; positive regulation of bone resorption; positive regulation of transcription factor activity; immune response; positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; positive regulation of T cell activation; protein homooligomerization; bone resorption
SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.