a non-catalytic subunit of AMPK, a highly conserved kinase of the CAMKL family. The holoenzyme consists of a catalytic subunit (alpha) and two regulatory subunits (beta, gamma). Each subunit exists as multiple genetic isoforms giving rise to 12 different possible combinations of holoenzyme. Plays a key role in regulation of energy homeostasis. Activated by an elevated AMP-ATP ratio due to environmental stress, such as heat shock, hypoxia and ischemia. AMPK phosphorylates and regulates many metabolic enzymes. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Autophagy; Protein kinase, regulatory subunit
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 12q12-q14
Cellular Component: membrane; cytosol; nucleus; AMP-activated protein kinase complex
Molecular Function: AMP-activated protein kinase activity; protein binding; cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity; cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulator activity; ADP binding; protein kinase binding; ATP binding; protein kinase activity; AMP binding
Biological Process: mitochondrion organization and biogenesis; protein heterooligomerization; regulation of glycolysis; organelle organization and biogenesis; positive regulation of protein kinase activity; insulin receptor signaling pathway; spermatogenesis; signal transduction; cell cycle arrest; protein amino acid phosphorylation; fatty acid biosynthetic process
SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.