a glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes glucose metabolism in the liver and pancreatic beta cells. Acts as a ""glucose sensor"" in beta cells. The first and rate-limiting step in glycosis, a pathway that produces energy in the form of ATP from glucose. Glucokinase traps glucose inside the cell by catalyzing its phosphorylation to produce glucose-6-phosphate. Has a lower affinity for glucose than the three other isozymes of hexokinase, allowing other organs such as the brain and muscles to have first call on glucose when its supply is limited. Unlike other hexokinases, glucokinase is not inhibited by glucose-6-phosphate. Glucokinase is found in the outer membrane compartment of mitochondria. May bind VDAC, suppressing mitochondrial function. Glucokinase transcription is induced by insulin, perhaps via the activation of Stat 5B. Mutant glucokinase causes a rare form of diabetes and may also play a role in type 2 diabetes. Three splice variant isoforms of human glucokinase have been described. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: EC 18.104.22.168; Kinase, other; Carbohydrate Metabolism - glycolysis and gluconeogenesis; Carbohydrate Metabolism - galactose; Mitochondrial; Carbohydrate Metabolism - starch and sucrose; Carbohydrate Metabolism - amino sugar and nucleotide sugar
SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.