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Protein Page:
GK (human)
p Phosphorylation
ac Acetylation
me Methylation
m1 Mono-methylation
m2 Di-methylation
m3 Tri-methylation
ub Ubiquitination
sm Sumoylation
ne Neddylation
gl O-GlcNAc
ga O-GalNAc
pa Palmitoylation
ad Adenylylation
sn S-Nitrosylation
ca Caspase cleavage
sc Succinylation

Overview
GK a glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes glucose metabolism in the liver and pancreatic beta cells. Acts as a ""glucose sensor"" in beta cells. The first and rate-limiting step in glycosis, a pathway that produces energy in the form of ATP from glucose. Glucokinase traps glucose inside the cell by catalyzing its phosphorylation to produce glucose-6-phosphate. Has a lower affinity for glucose than the three other isozymes of hexokinase, allowing other organs such as the brain and muscles to have first call on glucose when its supply is limited. Unlike other hexokinases, glucokinase is not inhibited by glucose-6-phosphate. Glucokinase is found in the outer membrane compartment of mitochondria. May bind VDAC, suppressing mitochondrial function. Glucokinase transcription is induced by insulin, perhaps via the activation of Stat 5B. Mutant glucokinase causes a rare form of diabetes and may also play a role in type 2 diabetes. Three splice variant isoforms of human glucokinase have been described. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Carbohydrate Metabolism - starch and sucrose; Mitochondrial; Kinase, other; EC 2.7.1.2; Carbohydrate Metabolism - amino sugar and nucleotide sugar; Carbohydrate Metabolism - glycolysis and gluconeogenesis; Carbohydrate Metabolism - galactose
Cellular Component: nucleoplasm; mitochondrion; cell cortex; cytosol; secretory granule
Molecular Function: protein binding; mannokinase activity; fructokinase activity; magnesium ion binding; ADP binding; glucokinase activity; protein phosphatase binding; ATP binding; glucose binding
Biological Process: glucose 6-phosphate metabolic process; positive regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process; glucose transport; glucose homeostasis; NADP metabolic process; cellular response to glucose starvation; detection of glucose; elevation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration; negative regulation of gluconeogenesis; regulation of glycolysis; transmembrane transport; second-messenger-mediated signaling; glycogen biosynthetic process; glycolysis; regulation of potassium ion transport; glucose metabolic process; positive regulation of insulin secretion; endocrine pancreas development; fructose 2,6-bisphosphate metabolic process; cellular response to insulin stimulus; hexose transport; carbohydrate phosphorylation; positive regulation of glycolysis; carbohydrate metabolic process; negative regulation of epinephrine secretion; cell glucose homeostasis; regulation of insulin secretion; positive regulation of phosphorylation
Reference #:  P35557 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: ATP:D-hexose 6-phosphotransferase; FGQTL3; GCK; GK; GLK; Glucokinase; glucokinase (hexokinase 4); hexokinase D, pancreatic isozyme; Hexokinase type IV; Hexokinase-4; Hexokinase-D; HHF3; HK IV; HK4; HKIV; HXK4; HXKP; LGLK; MODY2
Gene Symbols: GCK
Molecular weight: 52,191 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 5.1  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
CST Pathways:  Warburg Effect
Select Structure to View Below

GK

Protein Structure Not Found.


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Sites Implicated In
enzymatic activity, induced: S411‑p
protein conformation: S411‑p

Modification Sites and Domains Show Modification Legend
Click here to view phosphorylation modifications only

Modification Sites in Parent Protein, Orthologs, and Isoforms Show Modification Legend
 

Show Multiple Sequence Alignment


 SS 

SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.


 MS 

MS: The number of records in which this modification site was assigned using ONLY proteomic discovery-mode mass spectrometry.


       human

► Hide Isoforms
 
0 1 R46 KEMDRGLRLETHEEA
0 1 K56 THEEASVKMLPTYVR
0 1 K102 EEGQWSVKTKHQMYS
1 0 K161-sm VRHEDIDkGILLNWT
0 1 K161 VRHEDIDKGILLNWT
1 0 K169-sm GILLNWTkGFKASGA
0 1 K169 GILLNWTKGFKASGA
0 1 K172 LNWTkGFKASGAEGN
0 1 K291 PGQQLYEKLIGGKYM
0 1 K296 YEKLIGGKYMGELVR
0 1 K296 YEKLIGGKYMGELVR
1 0 K346-sm ESDTGDRkQIYNILS
0 1 S373-p IVRRACEsVstRAAH
0 1 S375-p RRACEsVstRAAHMC
0 1 T376-p RACEsVstRAAHMCs
0 1 S383-p tRAAHMCsAGLAGVI
1 1 S411-p ITVGVDGsVykLHPS
0 1 Y413-p VGVDGsVykLHPSFK
1 0 K414-sm GVDGsVykLHPSFKE
0 1 K414 GVDGsVyKLHPSFKE
0 1 K420 ykLHPSFKERFHASV
0 1 K458 LVSAVACKkACMLGQ
1 0 K458-sm LVSAVACkkACMLGQ
1 0 K459-sm VSAVACkkACMLGQ_
  GK iso2  
R47 KEMDRGLRLETHEEA
K57 THEEASVKMLPTYVR
K103 EEGQWSVKTKHQMYS
K162 VRHEDIDKGILLNWT
K162 VRHEDIDKGILLNWT
K170 GILLNWTKGFKASGA
K170 GILLNWTKGFKASGA
K173 LNWTKGFKASGAEGN
K292 PGQQLYEKLIGGKYM
K297 YEKLIGGKYMGELVR
K297 YEKLIGGKYMGELVR
K347 ESDTGDRKQIYNILS
S374 IVRRACESVSTRAAH
S376 RRACESVSTRAAHMC
T377 RACESVSTRAAHMCS
S384 TRAAHMCSAGLAGVI
S412 ITVGVDGSVYKLHPS
Y414 VGVDGSVYKLHPSFK
K415 GVDGSVYKLHPSFKE
K415 GVDGSVYKLHPSFKE
K421 YKLHPSFKERFHASV
K459 LVSAVACKKACMLGQ
K459 LVSAVACKKACMLGQ
K460 VSAVACKKACMLGQ_
  mouse

 
K46-ub KEMDRGLkLETHQEA
K56-ub THQEASVkMLPTYVR
K102-ub EAGQWSVkTKHQMYS
K161 VRHEDIDKGILLNWT
K161-ub VRHEDIDkGILLNWT
K169 GILLNWTKGFkASGA
K169-ub GILLNWTkGFkASGA
K172-ub LNWTkGFkASGAEGN
K291-ub PGQQLYEkIIGGkYM
K296-ac YEkIIGGkYMGELVR
K296-ub YEkIIGGkYMGELVR
R346 ESDSGDRRQILNILS
S373 IVRRACESVSTRAAH
S375 RRACESVSTRAAHMC
T376 RACESVSTRAAHMCS
S383 TRAAHMCSAGLAGVI
S411 ITVGVDGSVYkLHPS
Y413 VGVDGSVYkLHPSFk
K414 GVDGSVYKLHPSFkE
K414-ub GVDGSVYkLHPSFkE
K420-ub YkLHPSFkERFHASV
K458-ub LVSAVACkKACMLGQ
K458 LVSAVACKKACMLGQ
K459 VSAVACkKACMLGQ_
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