Induces cartilage and bone formation. May be the osteoinductive factor responsible for the phenomenon of epithelial osteogenesis. Plays a role in calcium regulation and bone homeostasis. Homodimer; disulfide-linked. Interacts with SOSTDC1. Interacts with TWSG1. Expressed in the kidney and bladder. Lower levels seen in the brain. Belongs to the TGF-beta family. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Secreted; Secreted, signal peptide
Cellular Component: extracellular space; extracellular region
Molecular Function: protein binding; growth factor activity; cytokine activity
Biological Process: negative regulation of MAP kinase activity; axon guidance; extracellular matrix organization and biogenesis; positive regulation of apoptosis; positive regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent; negative regulation of NF-kappaB import into nucleus; embryonic pattern specification; negative regulation of neurogenesis; negative regulation of cell cycle; BMP signaling pathway; epithelial cell differentiation; ureteric bud development; dendrite development; mesonephros development; skeletal development; embryonic limb morphogenesis; ossification; positive regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion; positive regulation of bone mineralization; odontogenesis of dentine-containing teeth; positive regulation of osteoblast differentiation; negative regulation of neuron differentiation; mesenchymal cell differentiation; mesoderm formation; branching morphogenesis of a tube; inhibition of NF-kappaB transcription factor; cartilage development; negative regulation of mitosis; negative regulation of phosphorylation; epithelial to mesenchymal transition; negative regulation of Notch signaling pathway; steroid hormone mediated signaling; positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; embryonic camera-type eye morphogenesis; negative regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent; positive regulation of neuron differentiation; metanephros development; neurite morphogenesis; growth
SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.