Transcription regulator involved in inner cell mass and embryonic stem (ES) cells proliferation and self-renewal. Imposes pluripotency on ES cells and prevents their differentiation towards extraembryonic endoderm and trophectoderm lineages. Blocks bone morphogenetic protein-induced mesoderm differentiation of ES cells by physically interacting with SMAD1 and interfering with the recruitment of coactivators to the active SMAD transcriptional complexes. Acts as a transcriptional activator or repressor. Binds optimally to the DNA consensus sequence 5'-TAAT[GT][GT]-3' or 5'-[CG][GA][CG]C[GC]ATTAN[GC]-3'. When overexpressed, promotes cells to enter into S phase and proliferation. Interacts with SMAD1 and SALL4. Expressed in testicular carcinoma and derived germ cell tumors. Expressed in fetal gonads, ovary and testis. Also expressed in ovary teratocarcinoma cell line and testicular embryonic carcinoma. Not expressed in many somatic organs and oocytes. Belongs to the Nanog homeobox family. 2 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Transcription factor; DNA binding protein; Cell development/differentiation
SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.