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Protein Page:
CXCL12 (human)

Overview
CXCL12 Chemoattractant active on T-lymphocytes, monocytes, but not neutrophils. Activates the C-X-C chemokine receptor CXCR4 to induce a rapid and transient rise in the level of intracellular calcium ions and chemotaxis. Also binds to another C-X-C chemokine receptor CXCR7, which activates the beta-arrestin pathway and acts as a scavenger receptor for SDF-1. SDF-1-beta(3-72) and SDF-1- alpha(3-67) show a reduced chemotactic activity. Binding to cell surface proteoglycans seems to inhibit formation of SDF-1-alpha(3- 67) and thus to preserve activity on local sites. Acts as a positive regulator of monocyte migration and a negative regulator of monocyte adhesion via the LYN kinase. Stimulates migration of monocytes and T-lymphocytes through its receptors, CXCR4 and CXCR7, and decreases monocyte adherence to surfaces coated with ICAM-1, a ligand for beta-2 integrins. SDF1A/CXCR4 signaling axis inhibits beta-2 integrin LFA-1 mediated adhesion of monocytes to ICAM-1 through LYN kinase. Inhibits CXCR4-mediated infection by T- cell line-adapted HIV-1. Plays a protective role after myocardial infarction. Induces down-regulation and internalization of CXCR7 expressed in various cells. Has several critical functions during embryonic development; required for B-cell lymphopoiesis, myelopoiesis in bone marrow and heart ventricular septum formation. Monomer or homodimer; in equilibrium. Dimer formation is induced by non acidic pH and the presence of multivalent anions, and by binding to CXCR4 or heparin. Monomeric form is required for full chemotactic activity and resistance to ischemia/reperfusion injury, whereas the dimeric form acts as a partial agonist of CXCR4, stimulating Ca2+ mobilization but with no chemotactic activity and instead acts as a selective antagonist that blocks chemotaxis induced by the monomeric form. Interacts with the N- terminus of CXCR7. Isoform Alpha and isoform Beta are ubiquitously expressed, with highest levels detected in liver, pancreas and spleen. Isoform Gamma is mainly expressed in heart, with weak expression detected in several other tissues. Isoform Delta, isoform Epsilon and isoform Theta have highest expression levels in pancreas, with lower levels detected in heart, kidney, liver and spleen. Belongs to the intercrine alpha (chemokine CxC) family. 6 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Secreted; Chemokine; Motility/polarity/chemotaxis; Secreted, signal peptide; Cell development/differentiation
Cellular Component: extracellular space; extracellular region; external side of plasma membrane
Molecular Function: growth factor activity; chemokine receptor binding; chemokine activity; CXCR chemokine receptor binding; receptor binding
Biological Process: positive regulation of dopamine secretion; response to peptide hormone stimulus; blood circulation; adult locomotory behavior; neuron migration; motor axon guidance; chemotaxis; signal transduction; germ cell development; induction of positive chemotaxis; T cell proliferation; response to radiation; germ cell migration; cell adhesion; organ regeneration; response to virus; regulation of actin polymerization and/or depolymerization; patterning of blood vessels; cellular calcium ion homeostasis; G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway; response to mechanical stimulus; response to heat; ameboidal cell migration; response to hypoxia; positive regulation of axon extension involved in axon guidance; immune response; positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation; positive regulation of neuron differentiation; telencephalon cell migration
Reference #:  P48061 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: C-X-C motif chemokine 12; chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12; chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (stromal cell-derived factor 1); CXCL12; hIRH; hSDF-1; Intercrine reduced in hepatomas; IRH; PBSF; Pre-B cell growth-stimulating factor; SCYB12; SDF-1; SDF-1-alpha(3-67); SDF-1-beta(3-72); SDF-1a; SDF-1b; SDF1; SDF1A; SDF1B; Stromal cell-derived factor 1; stromal cell-derived factor 1 delta; stromal cell-derived factor 1 gamma; stromal cell-derived factor 1a; TLSF-a; TLSF-b; TPAR1
Gene Symbols: CXCL12
Molecular weight: 10,666 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 9.92  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
Protein-Specific Antibodies or siRNAs from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
Select Structure to View Below

CXCL12

Protein Structure Not Found.


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Modification Sites and Domains  

Modification Sites in Parent Protein, Orthologs, and Isoforms  
 

Show Multiple Sequence Alignment


 SS 

SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.


 MS 

MS: The number of records in which this modification site was assigned using ONLY proteomic discovery-mode mass spectrometry.


       human

► Hide Isoforms
 
0 1 Y82-p KLKWIQEyLEKALNK
0 2 - gap
  CXCL12 iso4  
Y82 KLKWIQEYLEKALNN
S92-p KALNNLIsAAPAGKR
  mouse

 
Y82 KLKWIQEYLEKALNK
- gap
  rat

 
Y82 KLKWIQEYLDKALNK
- gap
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