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Protein Page:
CXCL12 (human)
p Phosphorylation
ac Acetylation
me Methylation
m1 Mono-methylation
m2 Di-methylation
m3 Tri-methylation
ub Ubiquitination
sm Sumoylation
ne Neddylation
gl O-GlcNAc
ga O-GalNAc
pa Palmitoylation
ad Adenylylation
sn S-Nitrosylation
ca Caspase cleavage
sc Succinylation

Overview
CXCL12 Chemoattractant active on T-lymphocytes, monocytes, but not neutrophils. Activates the C-X-C chemokine receptor CXCR4 to induce a rapid and transient rise in the level of intracellular calcium ions and chemotaxis. Also binds to another C-X-C chemokine receptor CXCR7, which activates the beta-arrestin pathway and acts as a scavenger receptor for SDF-1. SDF-1-beta(3-72) and SDF-1- alpha(3-67) show a reduced chemotactic activity. Binding to cell surface proteoglycans seems to inhibit formation of SDF-1-alpha(3- 67) and thus to preserve activity on local sites. Acts as a positive regulator of monocyte migration and a negative regulator of monocyte adhesion via the LYN kinase. Stimulates migration of monocytes and T-lymphocytes through its receptors, CXCR4 and CXCR7, and decreases monocyte adherence to surfaces coated with ICAM-1, a ligand for beta-2 integrins. SDF1A/CXCR4 signaling axis inhibits beta-2 integrin LFA-1 mediated adhesion of monocytes to ICAM-1 through LYN kinase. Inhibits CXCR4-mediated infection by T- cell line-adapted HIV-1. Plays a protective role after myocardial infarction. Induces down-regulation and internalization of CXCR7 expressed in various cells. Has several critical functions during embryonic development; required for B-cell lymphopoiesis, myelopoiesis in bone marrow and heart ventricular septum formation. Monomer or homodimer; in equilibrium. Dimer formation is induced by non acidic pH and the presence of multivalent anions, and by binding to CXCR4 or heparin. Monomeric form is required for full chemotactic activity and resistance to ischemia/reperfusion injury, whereas the dimeric form acts as a partial agonist of CXCR4, stimulating Ca2+ mobilization but with no chemotactic activity and instead acts as a selective antagonist that blocks chemotaxis induced by the monomeric form. Interacts with the N- terminus of CXCR7. Isoform Alpha and isoform Beta are ubiquitously expressed, with highest levels detected in liver, pancreas and spleen. Isoform Gamma is mainly expressed in heart, with weak expression detected in several other tissues. Isoform Delta, isoform Epsilon and isoform Theta have highest expression levels in pancreas, with lower levels detected in heart, kidney, liver and spleen. Belongs to the intercrine alpha (chemokine CxC) family. 6 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Secreted; Chemokine; Motility/polarity/chemotaxis; Secreted, signal peptide; Cell development/differentiation
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 10q11.1
Cellular Component: extracellular space; extracellular region; external side of plasma membrane
Molecular Function: growth factor activity; chemokine receptor binding; chemokine activity; CXCR chemokine receptor binding; receptor binding
Biological Process: response to peptide hormone stimulus; positive regulation of dopamine secretion; positive regulation of cell adhesion; adult locomotory behavior; blood circulation; neuron migration; motor axon guidance; signal transduction; chemotaxis; induction of positive chemotaxis; germ cell development; T cell proliferation; response to radiation; germ cell migration; cell adhesion; organ regeneration; regulation of actin polymerization and/or depolymerization; response to virus; patterning of blood vessels; cellular calcium ion homeostasis; G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway; response to heat; response to mechanical stimulus; ameboidal cell migration; positive regulation of axon extension involved in axon guidance; response to hypoxia; positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation; immune response; positive regulation of neuron differentiation; telencephalon cell migration
Reference #:  P48061 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: C-X-C motif chemokine 12; chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12; chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (stromal cell-derived factor 1); CXCL12; hIRH; hSDF-1; Intercrine reduced in hepatomas; IRH; PBSF; Pre-B cell growth-stimulating factor; SCYB12; SDF-1; SDF-1-alpha(3-67); SDF-1-beta(3-72); SDF-1a; SDF-1b; SDF1; SDF1A; SDF1B; Stromal cell-derived factor 1; stromal cell-derived factor 1 delta; stromal cell-derived factor 1 gamma; stromal cell-derived factor 1a; TLSF-a; TLSF-b; TPAR1
Gene Symbols: CXCL12
Molecular weight: 10,666 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 9.92  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
Protein-Specific Antibodies or siRNAs from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
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CXCL12

Protein Structure Not Found.


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Modification Sites and Domains Show Modification Legend
Click here to view phosphorylation modifications only

Modification Sites in Parent Protein, Orthologs, and Isoforms Show Modification Legend
 

Show Multiple Sequence Alignment


 SS 

SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.


 MS 

MS: The number of records in which this modification site was assigned using ONLY proteomic discovery-mode mass spectrometry.


       human

► Hide Isoforms
 
0 1 Y28-p GKPVSLSyRCPCRFF
0 1 T52 KHLKILNTPNCALQI
0 1 Y82-p KLKWIQEyLEKALNK
0 1 - gap
0 2 - gap
  CXCL12 iso4  
Y28 GKPVSLSYRCPCRFF
T52 KHLKILNTPNCALQI
Y82 KLKWIQEYLEKALNN
- gap
S92-p KALNNLIsAAPAGKR
  mouse

► Hide Isoforms
 
Y28 GKPVSLSYRCPCRFF
T52-p KHLKILNtPNCALQI
Y82 KLKWIQEYLEKALNK
- gap
- gap
  CXCL12 iso3  
Y28 GKPVSLSYRCPCRFF
T52 KHLKILNTPNCALQI
Y82 KLKWIQEYLEKALNK
K104-ub GKKEKIGkKKRQKKR
- gap
  rat

 
Y28 GKPVSLSYRCPCRFF
T52 KHLKILNTPNCALQI
Y82 KLKWIQEYLDKALNK
K104 GKKEKIGKKKRQKKR
- gap
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