Proton-coupled chloride transporter. Functions as antiport system and exchanges chloride ions against protons. Important for normal acidification of the endosome lumen. May play an important role in renal tubular function. Defects in CLCN5 are a cause of hypophosphatemic rickets, X-linked recessive (XLRHR). XLRHR is a renal disease belonging to the 'Dent disease complex', a group of disorders characterized by proximal renal tubular defect, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, and renal insufficiency. The spectrum of phenotypic features is remarkably similar in the various disorders, except for differences in the severity of bone deformities and renal impairment. XLRH patients present with rickets or osteomalacia, hypophosphatemia due to decreased renal tubular phosphate reabsorption, hypercalciuria, and low molecular weight proteinuria. Patients develop nephrocalcinosis with progressive renal failure in adulthood. Female carriers may have asymptomatic hypercalciuria or hypophosphatemia only. Defects in CLCN5 are the cause of nephrolithiasis type 2 (NPHL2); also known as Dent disease 1. NPHL2 is an X- linked recessive renal disease belonging to the 'Dent disease complex'. NPHL2 patients manifest hypercalciuria, hypophosphatemia, aminoaciduria, nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis, renal insufficiency leading to renal failure in adulthood, rickets (33% of patients) and osteomalacia. Defects in CLCN5 are the cause of nephrolithiasis type 1 (NPHL1); also designated XRN. NPHL1 is an X-linked recessive renal disease belonging to the 'Dent disease complex'. NPHL1 presents with hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, renal stones and renal insufficiency. Patients lack urinary acidification defects, rickets, and osteomalacia. Defects in CLCN5 are the cause of low molecular weight proteinuria with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (LMWPHN). LMWPHN is an X-linked renal disease belonging to the 'Dent disease complex'. Patients tend to have hypercalciuric nephrocalcinosis without rickets or renal failure. Belongs to the chloride channel (TC 2.A.49) family. ClC-5/CLCN5 subfamily. 2 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Transporter; Membrane protein, multi-pass; Membrane protein, integral; Transporter, ion channel
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: Xp11.23-p11.22
Cellular Component: Golgi membrane; membrane; integral to plasma membrane; lysosomal membrane; apical part of cell; endosome membrane
SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.