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Protein Page:
KARS (human)
p Phosphorylation
a Acetylation
m Methylation
m1 Mono-methylation
m2 Di-methylation
m3 Tri-methylation
u Ubiquitination
s Sumoylation
n Neddylation
gl O-GlcNAc
ga O-GalNAc
h Palmitoylation
ad Adenylylation
sn S-Nitrosylation
ca Caspase cleavage

Overview
KARS Catalyzes the specific attachment of an amino acid to its cognate tRNA in a 2 step reaction: the amino acid (AA) is first activated by ATP to form AA-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of the tRNA. When secreted, acts as a signaling molecule that induces immune response through the activation of monocyte/macrophages. Catalyzes the synthesis of diadenosine oligophosphate (Ap4A), a signaling molecule involved in the activation of MITF transcriptional activity. Interacts with HIV-1 virus GAG protein, facilitating the selective packaging of tRNA(3)(Lys), the primer for reverse transcription initiation. Homodimer; also part of a multisubunit complex that groups AIMP1, AIMP2, EEF1A1 and tRNA ligases for Arg, Asp, Glu, Gln, Ile, Leu, Lys, Met and Pro. Interacts with AIMP2 (via N- terminus) and MITF. Interacts directly with HIV-1 virus GAG protein. Up-regulated by DARS and EEF1A1, but not by AIMP2. Belongs to the class-II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family. 2 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: EC 6.1.1.6; Translation; Mitochondrial; Ligase
Cellular Component: aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase multienzyme complex; mitochondrion; mitochondrial matrix; extracellular region; plasma membrane; cytosol; nucleus
Molecular Function: amino acid binding; protein binding; metal ion binding; lysine-tRNA ligase activity; ATP binding; tRNA binding
Biological Process: cell death; tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation; lysyl-tRNA aminoacylation; viral reproduction; tRNA processing; gene expression; diadenosine tetraphosphate biosynthetic process
Reference #:  Q15046 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: KARS; KARS2; KIAA0070; KRS; lysine tRNA ligase; Lysine--tRNA ligase; LysRS; Lysyl-tRNA synthetase; SYK
Gene Symbols: KARS
Molecular weight: 68,048 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 5.94  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
Protein-Specific Antibodies or siRNAs from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
Select Structure to View Below

KARS

Protein Structure Not Found.


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Sites Implicated In
enzymatic activity, induced: S207‑p
intracellular localization: S207‑p

Modification Sites and Domains Show Modification Legend
Click here to view phosphorylation modifications only

Modification Sites in Parent Protein, Orthologs, and Isoforms Show Modification Legend
 

Show Multiple Sequence Alignment


 SS 

SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.


 MS 

MS: The number of records in which this modification site was assigned using ONLY proteomic discovery-mode mass spectrometry.


       human

► Hide Isoforms
 
0 1 - gap
1 1 S49-p ELSEKQLsQAtAAAT
1 0 T52-p EKQLsQAtAAATNHT
0 2 K78-u VDPNQYYkIRSQAIH
0 1 K88-a SQAIHQLkVNGEDPY
0 3 K127-u HLTDITLkVAGRIHA
0 1 K141-a AKRASGGkLIFYDLR
1 0 S207-p PYEITLLsPCLHMLP
0 1 K249 QKFIIRSKIITYIRS
0 2 K305-u IAPELYHkMLVVGGI
0 2 K363-u KMVSGMVkHITGSYK
0 1 Y383 DGPEGQAYDVDFTPP
0 2 N395 TPPFRRINMVEELEk
0 1 K402-a NMVEELEkALGMKLP
0 1 K407 LEkALGMKLPETNLF
0 1 N412 GMKLPETNLFETEET
0 2 K421-u FETEETRkILDDICV
0 1 K492 RFELFVMKKEICNAY
0 1 K493 FELFVMKKEICNAYT
0 1 K565 LTDSNNIKEVLLFPA
0 1 K578 PAMKPEDKKENVATT
0 5 T587-p ENVATTDtLEsTTVG
0 4 S590-p ATTDtLEsTTVGTsV
0 3 T591 TTDtLEsTTVGTsV_
0 3 G594 tLEsTTVGTsV____
0 3 S596-p EsTTVGTsV______
  KARS iso2  
- gap
S77 ELSEKQLSQATAAAT
T80 EKQLSQATAAATNHT
K106 VDPNQYYKIRSQAIH
K116 SQAIHQLKVNGEDPY
K155 HLTDITLKVAGRIHA
K169 AKRASGGKLIFYDLR
S235 PYEITLLSPCLHMLP
K277 QKFIIRSKIITYIRS
K333 IAPELYHKMLVVGGI
K391 KMVSGMVKHITGSYK
Y411 DGPEGQAYDVDFTPP
N423 TPPFRRINMVEELEK
K430 NMVEELEKALGMKLP
K435 LEKALGMKLPETNLF
N440 GMKLPETNLFETEET
K449 FETEETRKILDDICV
K520 RFELFVMKKEICNAY
K521 FELFVMKKEICNAYT
K593 LTDSNNIKEVLLFPA
K606 PAMKPEDKKENVATT
T615 ENVATTDTLESTTVG
S618 ATTDTLESTTVGTSV
T619 TTDTLESTTVGTSV_
G622 TLESTTVGTSV____
S624 ESTTVGTSV______
  mouse

► Hide Isoforms
 
- gap
N48 ELSEKQLNQTASAPN
- gap
K76-u LDPNQYYkIRSQAVQ
K86 SQAVQQLKVTGEDPY
K125-u HLTDVTLkVAGRIHA
K139 AKRASGGKLIFYDLR
S205 PQEITLLSPCLHMLP
K247-u QKFIVRSkIITYIRS
K303-u IAPELYHkMLVVGGI
K361-u KMLSGMVkSITGSYK
Y381-p DGPEGQAyEVDFTPP
S393-p TPPFRRIsMVEELEK
K400 sMVEELEKALGVkLP
K405-u LEKALGVkLPETsLF
S410-p GVkLPETsLFETEET
K419-u FETEETRkILDDICV
K490-u RFELFVMkkEICNAY
K491-u FELFVMkkEICNAYT
K563-u LTDSNNIkEVLLFPA
K576-u PAMKPEDkKETAATT
T585-p ETAATTEtPEstEAs
S588-p ATTEtPEstEAsPsV
T589-p TTEtPEstEAsPsV_
S592-p tPEstEAsPsV____
S594-p EstEAsPsV______
  KARS iso3  
S45-p LHKDQPLsDRRSELK
N77 ELSEKQLNQTASAPN
- gap
K105 LDPNQYYKIRSQAVQ
K115 SQAVQQLKVTGEDPY
K154 HLTDVTLKVAGRIHA
K168 AKRASGGKLIFYDLR
S234 PQEITLLSPCLHMLP
K276 QKFIVRSKIITYIRS
K332 IAPELYHKMLVVGGI
K390 KMLSGMVKSITGSYK
Y410 DGPEGQAYEVDFTPP
S422 TPPFRRISMVEELEK
K429 SMVEELEKALGVKLP
K434 LEKALGVKLPETSLF
S439 GVKLPETSLFETEET
K448 FETEETRKILDDICV
K519 RFELFVMKKEICNAY
K520 FELFVMKKEICNAYT
K592 LTDSNNIKEVLLFPA
K605 PAMKPEDKKETAATT
T614 ETAATTETPESTEAS
S617 ATTETPESTEASPSV
T618 TTETPESTEASPSV_
S621 TPESTEASPSV____
S623 ESTEASPSV______
  rat

 
S45 LRKDKPLSDRRSELK
N77 ELSEKQLNQTTAAAA
T80 EKQLNQTTAAAATNH
K107 LDPNQYYKIRSQAVQ
K117 SQAVQQLKVSGEDPY
K156 HLTDITLKVAGRIHA
K170 AKRASGGKLIFYDLR
S236 PREMTLLSPCLHMLP
K278 QKFIIRSKIITYIRS
K334 IAPELYHKMLVVGGI
R392 KMLSGMVRSITGSYK
Y412 DGPEGQAYEIDFTPP
S424 TPPFRRISMVEELEK
K431 SMVEELEKVLGVKLP
K436 LEKVLGVKLPETSLF
S441 GVKLPETSLFETEET
K450 FETEETRKILDDICV
K521 RFELFVMKKEICNAY
K522 FELFVMKKEICNAYT
K594 LTDSNNIKEVLLFPA
K607 PAMKPEDKKETATAT
T616 ETATATETPESTEAS
S619 TATETPESTEASPSV
T620 ATETPESTEASPSV_
S623 TPESTEASPSV____
S625 ESTEASPSV______
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