Erythropoietin is the principal hormone involved in the regulation of erythrocyte differentiation and the maintenance of a physiological level of circulating erythrocyte mass. Genetic variation in EPO is associated with susceptbility to microvascular complications of diabetes type 2 (MVCD2). These are pathological conditions that develop in numerous tissues and organs as a consequence of diabetes mellitus. They include diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy leading to end-stage renal disease, and diabetic neuropathy. Diabetic retinopathy remains the major cause of new-onset blindness among diabetic adults. It is characterized by vascular permeability and increased tissue ischemia and angiogenesis. Belongs to the EPO/TPO family. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Secreted, signal peptide; Secreted
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 7q22
Cellular Component: extracellular space; cell surface; extracellular region
Molecular Function: protein binding; erythropoietin receptor binding; hormone activity; protein kinase activator activity
Biological Process: hemoglobin biosynthetic process; erythrocyte maturation; blood circulation; apoptosis; positive regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent; response to lipopolysaccharide; response to testosterone stimulus; signal transduction; response to salt stress; response to vitamin A; peptidyl-serine phosphorylation; response to hyperoxia; positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat5 protein; response to estrogen stimulus; positive regulation of protein kinase activity; positive regulation of cell proliferation; response to axon injury; positive regulation of Ras protein signal transduction; response to electrical stimulus; positive regulation of neuron differentiation; positive regulation of DNA replication; embryo implantation; aging
SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.