a guanine nucleotide-binding protein of the G12 class of G-alpha proteins. Activates Rho. Protein kinase A blocks Rho activation by phosphorylation of G-alpha(13). Heterotrimeric G proteins are composed of 3 units; alpha, beta and gamma. The alpha chain contains the guanine nucleotide binding site. Regulates cytoplasmic as well as nuclear signaling events such as activation of the Jun N-terminal kinase signaling module, Na+/H+ exchangers, focal adhesion assemblies, and transcriptional activation of specific primary response genes. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: G protein, heterotrimeric alpha G(12); G protein; G protein, heterotrimeric
Molecular Function: GTPase activity; signal transducer activity; protein binding; GTP binding; metal ion binding; G-protein beta/gamma-subunit binding; type 1 angiotensin receptor binding; D5 dopamine receptor binding
Biological Process: platelet activation; phospholipase D activation; in utero embryonic development; signal transduction; regulation of cell migration; G-protein signaling, adenylate cyclase activating pathway; Rho protein signal transduction; patterning of blood vessels; regulation of cell shape; elevation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration; GTP catabolic process; blood coagulation; cell differentiation; cell motility
SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.