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Protein Page:
GREM1 (human)

GREM1 Cytokine that may play an important role during carcinogenesis and metanephric kidney organogenesis, as a BMP antagonist required for early limb outgrowth and patterning in maintaining the FGF4-SHH feedback loop. Down-regulates the BMP4 signaling in a dose-dependent manner. Acts as inhibitor of monocyte chemotaxis. Interacts with SLIT1 and SLIT2 in a glycosylation- dependent manner. By high glucose through TGFB1-mediated pathways in mesangial cell. Down-regulated in tumor cell lines. Highly expressed in small intestine, fetal brain and colon. Weakly expressed in brain, ovary, prostate, pancreas and skeletal muscle. In brain found in the region localized around the internal capsule in the large subcortical nuclei, including caudate, putamen, substantia nigra, thalamus and subthalamus. Predominantly expressed in normal cells including neurons, astrocytes and fibroblasts. Belongs to the DAN family. 2 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Secreted; Secreted, signal peptide
Cellular Component: extracellular space; cell surface
Molecular Function: morphogen activity; protein binding; transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activator activity; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 binding; cytokine activity; receptor agonist activity
Biological Process: transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activation (dimerization); collagen fibril organization; apoptosis; positive regulation of receptor internalization; cell morphogenesis; positive regulation of NF-kappaB import into nucleus; signal transduction; negative regulation of BMP signaling pathway; activation of NF-kappaB transcription factor; negative regulation of bone mineralization; cell-cell signaling; positive regulation of cell proliferation; proximal/distal pattern formation; embryonic limb morphogenesis; determination of dorsal identity; positive regulation of telomerase activity; regulation of stress-activated MAPK cascade; positive regulation of angiogenesis; cell migration during sprouting angiogenesis; ureteric bud branching; regulation of focal adhesion formation; negative regulation of bone remodeling; positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; negative regulation of osteoblast proliferation; negative regulation of cell growth; negative regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent
Reference #:  O60565 (UniProtKB)
Alt. Names/Synonyms: Cell proliferation-inducing gene 2 protein; CKTSF1B1; Cysteine knot superfamily 1, BMP antagonist 1; DAN domain family member 2; DAND2; Down-regulated in Mos-transformed cells protein; DRM; GREM1; GREMLIN; gremlin 1, cysteine knot superfamily, homolog (Xenopus laevis); gremlin 1-like protein; Gremlin-1; IHG-2; Increased in high glucose protein 2; increased in high glucose-2; MGC126660; PIG2; proliferation-inducing gene 2
Gene Symbols: GREM1
Molecular weight: 20,697 Da
Basal Isoelectric point: 9.53  Predict pI for various phosphorylation states
Protein-Specific Antibodies or siRNAs from Cell Signaling Technology® Total Proteins
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Protein Structure Not Found.

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Modification Sites and Domains  

Modification Sites in Parent Protein, Orthologs, and Isoforms  

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SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.


MS: The number of records in which this modification site was assigned using ONLY proteomic discovery-mode mass spectrometry.



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