The insulin-like growth factors possess growth-promoting activity. In vitro, they are potent mitogens for cultured cells. IGF-II is influenced by placental lactogen and may play a role in fetal development. Epigenetic changes of DNA hypomethylation in IGF2 are a cause of Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS). A clinically heterogeneous condition characterized by severe intrauterine growth retardation, poor postnatal growth, craniofacial features such as a triangular shaped face and a broad forehead, body asymmetry, and a variety of minor malformations. The phenotypic expression changes during childhood and adolescence, with the facial features and asymmetry usually becoming more subtle with age. Belongs to the insulin family. 2 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Secreted; Secreted, signal peptide
Cellular Component: extracellular space; extracellular region
Biological Process: positive regulation of catalytic activity; ossification; genetic imprinting; positive regulation of mitosis; multicellular organismal development; positive regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process; glucose metabolic process; positive regulation of activated T cell proliferation; positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling cascade; positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation; regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent; positive regulation of MAPKKK cascade; positive regulation of cell division; positive regulation of cell proliferation; insulin receptor signaling pathway; positive regulation of protein amino acid phosphorylation; positive regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway; skeletal development
SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.