Oligomeric Apaf-1 mediates the cytochrome c-dependent autocatalytic activation of pro-caspase-9 (Apaf-3), leading to the activation of caspase-3 and apoptosis. This activation requires ATP. Isoform 6 is less effective in inducing apoptosis. Monomer. Oligomerizes upon binding of cytochrome c and dATP. Oligomeric Apaf-1 and pro-caspase-9 bind to each other via their respective NH2-terminal CARD domains and consecutively mature caspase-9 is released from the complex. Pro-caspase-3 is recruited into the Apaf-1-pro-caspase-9 complex via interaction with pro-caspase-9. Interacts with APIP. Interacts (via CARD and NACHT domains) with NAIP/BIRC1 (via NACHT domain). By E2F and p53/TP53 in apoptotic neurons. Ubiquitous. Highest levels of expression in adult spleen and peripheral blood leukocytes, and in fetal brain, kidney and lung. Isoform 1 is expressed in heart, kidney and liver. 6 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB.
Protein type: Apoptosis
Chromosomal Location of Human Ortholog: 12q23
Cellular Component: cytosol; nucleus; apoptosome
Molecular Function: identical protein binding; protein binding; nucleotide binding; caspase activator activity; ADP binding; ATP binding
Biological Process: caspase activation; regulation of apoptosis; nervous system development; neuron apoptosis; positive regulation of apoptosis; apoptosis; neural tube closure; forebrain development; defense response; DNA fragmentation during apoptosis; caspase activation via cytochrome c
SS: The number of records in which this modification site was determined using site-specific methods. SS methods include amino acid sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, modification site-specific antibodies, specific MS strategies, etc.